class MatchData

MatchData encapsulates the result of matching a Regexp against string. It is returned by Regexp#match and String#match, and also stored in a global variable returned by Regexp.last_match.

Usage:

url = 'https://docs.ruby-lang.org/en/2.5.0/MatchData.html'
m = url.match(/(\d\.?)+/)   # => #<MatchData "2.5.0" 1:"0">
m.string                    # => "https://docs.ruby-lang.org/en/2.5.0/MatchData.html"
m.regexp                    # => /(\d\.?)+/
# entire matched substring:
m[0]                        # => "2.5.0"

# Working with unnamed captures
m = url.match(%r{([^/]+)/([^/]+)\.html$})
m.captures                  # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
m[1]                        # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(1, 2)           # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]

# Working with named captures
m = url.match(%r{(?<version>[^/]+)/(?<module>[^/]+)\.html$})
m.captures                  # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
m.named_captures            # => {"version"=>"2.5.0", "module"=>"MatchData"}
m[:version]                 # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(:version, :module)
                            # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]
# Numerical indexes are working, too
m[1]                        # => "2.5.0"
m.values_at(1, 2)           # => ["2.5.0", "MatchData"]

Global variables equivalence

Parts of last MatchData (returned by Regexp.last_match) are also aliased as global variables:

See also “Special global variables” section in Regexp documentation.

Public Instance Methods

matchdata == object → true or false

Returns true if object is another MatchData object whose target string, regexp, match, and captures are the same as self, false otherwise.

MatchData#eql? is an alias for MatchData#==.

Alias for: eql?
matchdata[index] → string or nil click to toggle source
matchdata[start, length] → array
matchdata[range] → array
matchdata[name] → string or nil

When arguments index, +start and length, or range are given, returns match and captures in the style of Array#[]:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0] # => "HX1138"
m[1, 2]  # => ["H", "X"]
m[1..3]  # => ["H", "X", "113"]
m[-3, 2] # => ["X", "113"]

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the matched substring for the given name:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.+)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hoge" foo:"h" bar:"ge">
m['foo'] # => "h"
m[:bar]  # => "ge"
static VALUE
match_aref(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE match)
{
    VALUE idx, length;

    match_check(match);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &idx, &length);

    if (NIL_P(length)) {
        if (FIXNUM_P(idx)) {
            return rb_reg_nth_match(FIX2INT(idx), match);
        }
        else {
            int num = namev_to_backref_number(RMATCH_REGS(match), RMATCH(match)->regexp, idx);
            if (num >= 0) {
                return rb_reg_nth_match(num, match);
            }
            else {
                return match_ary_aref(match, idx, Qnil);
            }
        }
    }
    else {
        long beg = NUM2LONG(idx);
        long len = NUM2LONG(length);
        long num_regs = RMATCH_REGS(match)->num_regs;
        if (len < 0) {
            return Qnil;
        }
        if (beg < 0) {
            beg += num_regs;
            if (beg < 0) return Qnil;
        }
        else if (beg > num_regs) {
            return Qnil;
        }
        if (beg+len > num_regs) {
            len = num_regs - beg;
        }
        return match_ary_subseq(match, beg, len, Qnil);
    }
}
begin(n) → integer click to toggle source
begin(name) → integer

Returns the offset (in characters) of the beginning of the specified match.

When non-negative integer argument n is given, returns the offset of the beginning of the nth match:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]       # => "HX1138"
m.begin(0) # => 1
m[3]       # => "113"
m.begin(3) # => 3

m = /(т)(е)(с)/.match('тест')
# => #<MatchData "тес" 1:"т" 2:"е" 3:"с">
m[0]       # => "тес"
m.begin(0) # => 0
m[3]       # => "с"
m.begin(3) # => 2

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the offset of the beginning for the named match:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hog" foo:"h" bar:"g">
m[:foo]        # => "h"
m.begin('foo') # => 0
m[:bar]        # => "g"
m.begin(:bar)  # => 2

Related: MatchData#end, MatchData#offset, MatchData#byteoffset.

static VALUE
match_begin(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
        return Qnil;

    update_char_offset(match);
    return LONG2NUM(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].beg);
}
byteoffset(n) → array click to toggle source

Returns a two-element array containing the beginning and ending byte-based offsets of the nth match. n can be a string or symbol to reference a named capture.

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
m.byteoffset(0)      #=> [1, 7]
m.byteoffset(4)      #=> [6, 7]

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
p m.byteoffset(:foo) #=> [0, 1]
p m.byteoffset(:bar) #=> [2, 3]
static VALUE
match_byteoffset(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
        return rb_assoc_new(Qnil, Qnil);
    return rb_assoc_new(LONG2NUM(BEG(i)), LONG2NUM(END(i)));
}
captures → array click to toggle source

Returns the array of captures, which are all matches except m[0]:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]       # => "HX1138"
m.captures # => ["H", "X", "113", "8"]

Related: MatchData.to_a.

static VALUE
match_captures(VALUE match)
{
    return match_array(match, 1);
}
end(n) → integer click to toggle source
end(name) → integer

Returns the offset (in characters) of the end of the specified match.

When non-negative integer argument n is given, returns the offset of the end of the nth match:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]     # => "HX1138"
m.end(0) # => 7
m[3]     # => "113"
m.end(3) # => 6

m = /(т)(е)(с)/.match('тест')
# => #<MatchData "тес" 1:"т" 2:"е" 3:"с">
m[0]     # => "тес"
m.end(0) # => 3
m[3]     # => "с"
m.end(3) # => 3

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the offset of the end for the named match:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hog" foo:"h" bar:"g">
m[:foo]      # => "h"
m.end('foo') # => 1
m[:bar]      # => "g"
m.end(:bar)  # => 3

Related: MatchData#begin, MatchData#offset, MatchData#byteoffset.

static VALUE
match_end(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
        return Qnil;

    update_char_offset(match);
    return LONG2NUM(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].end);
}
eql? == object -> true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if object is another MatchData object whose target string, regexp, match, and captures are the same as self, false otherwise.

MatchData#eql? is an alias for MatchData#==.

static VALUE
match_equal(VALUE match1, VALUE match2)
{
    const struct re_registers *regs1, *regs2;

    if (match1 == match2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(match2, T_MATCH)) return Qfalse;
    if (!RMATCH(match1)->regexp || !RMATCH(match2)->regexp) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_str_equal(RMATCH(match1)->str, RMATCH(match2)->str)) return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_reg_equal(match_regexp(match1), match_regexp(match2))) return Qfalse;
    regs1 = RMATCH_REGS(match1);
    regs2 = RMATCH_REGS(match2);
    if (regs1->num_regs != regs2->num_regs) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->beg, regs2->beg, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->beg))) return Qfalse;
    if (memcmp(regs1->end, regs2->end, regs1->num_regs * sizeof(*regs1->end))) return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}
Also aliased as: ==
hash → integer click to toggle source

Returns the integer hash value for self, based on the target string, regexp, match, and captures.

See also Object#hash.

static VALUE
match_hash(VALUE match)
{
    const struct re_registers *regs;
    st_index_t hashval;

    match_check(match);
    hashval = rb_hash_start(rb_str_hash(RMATCH(match)->str));
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, reg_hash(match_regexp(match)));
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, regs->num_regs);
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, rb_memhash(regs->beg, regs->num_regs * sizeof(*regs->beg)));
    hashval = rb_hash_uint(hashval, rb_memhash(regs->end, regs->num_regs * sizeof(*regs->end)));
    hashval = rb_hash_end(hashval);
    return ST2FIX(hashval);
}
inspect → string click to toggle source

Returns a string representation of self:

  m = /.$/.match("foo")
  # => #<MatchData "o">
  m.inspect # => "#<MatchData \"o\">"

  m = /(.)(.)(.)/.match("foo")
  # => #<MatchData "foo" 1:"f" 2:"o" 3:"o">
  m.inspect # => "#<MatchData \"foo\" 1:\"f\" 2:\"o\

  m = /(.)(.)?(.)/.match("fo")
  # => #<MatchData "fo" 1:"f" 2:nil 3:"o">
  m.inspect # => "#<MatchData \"fo\" 1:\"f\" 2:nil 3:\"o\">"

Related: MatchData#to_s.
static VALUE
match_inspect(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE cname = rb_class_path(rb_obj_class(match));
    VALUE str;
    int i;
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    int num_regs = regs->num_regs;
    struct backref_name_tag *names;
    VALUE regexp = RMATCH(match)->regexp;

    if (regexp == 0) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE":%p>", cname, (void*)match);
    }
    else if (NIL_P(regexp)) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE": %"PRIsVALUE">",
                          cname, rb_reg_nth_match(0, match));
    }

    names = ALLOCA_N(struct backref_name_tag, num_regs);
    MEMZERO(names, struct backref_name_tag, num_regs);

    onig_foreach_name(RREGEXP_PTR(regexp),
            match_inspect_name_iter, names);

    str = rb_str_buf_new2("#<");
    rb_str_append(str, cname);

    for (i = 0; i < num_regs; i++) {
        VALUE v;
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, " ");
        if (0 < i) {
            if (names[i].name)
                rb_str_buf_cat(str, (const char *)names[i].name, names[i].len);
            else {
                rb_str_catf(str, "%d", i);
            }
            rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ":");
        }
        v = rb_reg_nth_match(i, match);
        if (NIL_P(v))
            rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "nil");
        else
            rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_str_inspect(v));
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ">");

    return str;
}
length()

Returns size of the match array:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.size # => 5

MatchData#length is an alias for MatchData.size.

Alias for: size
match(n) → string or nil click to toggle source
match(name) → string or nil

Returns the matched substring corresponding to the given argument.

When non-negative argument n is given, returns the matched substring for the nth match:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)(\w)?/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8" 5:nil>
m.match(0) # => "HX1138"
m.match(4) # => "8"
m.match(5) # => nil

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the matched substring for the given name:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.+)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hoge" foo:"h" bar:"ge">
m.match('foo') # => "h"
m.match(:bar)  # => "ge"
static VALUE
match_nth(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    long start = BEG(i), end = END(i);
    if (start < 0)
        return Qnil;

    return rb_str_subseq(RMATCH(match)->str, start, end - start);
}
match_length(n) → integer or nil click to toggle source
match_length(name) → integer or nil

Returns the length (in characters) of the matched substring corresponding to the given argument.

When non-negative argument n is given, returns the length of the matched substring for the nth match:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)(\w)?/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8" 5:nil>
m.match_length(0) # => 6
m.match_length(4) # => 1
m.match_length(5) # => nil

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the length of the matched substring for the named match:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.+)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hoge" foo:"h" bar:"ge">
m.match_length('foo') # => 1
m.match_length(:bar)  # => 2
static VALUE
match_nth_length(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
        return Qnil;

    update_char_offset(match);
    const struct rmatch_offset *const ofs =
        &RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i];
    return LONG2NUM(ofs->end - ofs->beg);
}
named_captures → hash click to toggle source

Returns a hash of the named captures; each key is a capture name; each value is its captured string or nil:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.+)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hoge" foo:"h" bar:"ge">
m.named_captures # => {"foo"=>"h", "bar"=>"ge"}

m = /(?<a>.)(?<b>.)/.match("01")
# => #<MatchData "01" a:"0" b:"1">
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "0", "b" => "1"}

m = /(?<a>.)(?<b>.)?/.match("0")
# => #<MatchData "0" a:"0" b:nil>
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "0", "b" => nil}

m = /(?<a>.)(?<a>.)/.match("01")
# => #<MatchData "01" a:"0" a:"1">
m.named_captures #=> {"a" => "1"}
static VALUE
match_named_captures(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE hash;
    struct MEMO *memo;

    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(RMATCH(match)->regexp))
        return rb_hash_new();

    hash = rb_hash_new();
    memo = MEMO_NEW(hash, match, 0);

    onig_foreach_name(RREGEXP(RMATCH(match)->regexp)->ptr, match_named_captures_iter, (void*)memo);

    return hash;
}
names → array_of_names click to toggle source

Returns an array of the capture names (see Named Captures):

m = /(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)(?<baz>.)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hog" foo:"h" bar:"o" baz:"g">
m.names # => ["foo", "bar", "baz"]

m = /foo/.match('foo') # => #<MatchData "foo">
m.names # => [] # No named captures.

Equivalent to:

m = /(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)(?<baz>.)/.match("hoge")
m.regexp.names # => ["foo", "bar", "baz"]
static VALUE
match_names(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(RMATCH(match)->regexp))
        return rb_ary_new_capa(0);
    return rb_reg_names(RMATCH(match)->regexp);
}
offset(n) → [start_offset, end_offset] click to toggle source
offset(name) → [start_offset, end_offset]

Returns a 2-element array containing the beginning and ending offsets (in characters) of the specified match.

When non-negative integer argument n is given, returns the starting and ending offsets of the nth match:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]        # => "HX1138"
m.offset(0) # => [1, 7]
m[3]        # => "113"
m.offset(3) # => [3, 6]

m = /(т)(е)(с)/.match('тест')
# => #<MatchData "тес" 1:"т" 2:"е" 3:"с">
m[0]        # => "тес"
m.offset(0) # => [0, 3]
m[3]        # => "с"
m.offset(3) # => [2, 3]

When string or symbol argument name is given, returns the starting and ending offsets for the named match:

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hog" foo:"h" bar:"g">
m[:foo]         # => "h"
m.offset('foo') # => [0, 1]
m[:bar]         # => "g"
m.offset(:bar)  # => [2, 3]

Related: MatchData#byteoffset, MatchData#begin, MatchData#end.

static VALUE
match_offset(VALUE match, VALUE n)
{
    int i = match_backref_number(match, n);
    struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

    match_check(match);
    backref_number_check(regs, i);

    if (BEG(i) < 0)
        return rb_assoc_new(Qnil, Qnil);

    update_char_offset(match);
    return rb_assoc_new(LONG2NUM(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].beg),
                        LONG2NUM(RMATCH(match)->rmatch->char_offset[i].end));
}
post_match → str click to toggle source

Returns the substring of the target string from the end of the first match in self (that is, self[0]) to the end of the string; equivalent to regexp global variable $':

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138: The Movie")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]         # => "HX1138"
m.post_match # => ": The Movie"\

Related: MatchData.pre_match.

VALUE
rb_reg_match_post(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str;
    long pos;
    struct re_registers *regs;

    if (NIL_P(match)) return Qnil;
    match_check(match);
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    if (BEG(0) == -1) return Qnil;
    str = RMATCH(match)->str;
    pos = END(0);
    str = rb_str_subseq(str, pos, RSTRING_LEN(str) - pos);
    return str;
}
pre_match → string click to toggle source

Returns the substring of the target string from its beginning up to the first match in self (that is, self[0]); equivalent to regexp global variable $`:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m[0]        # => "HX1138"
m.pre_match # => "T"

Related: MatchData#post_match.

VALUE
rb_reg_match_pre(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str;
    struct re_registers *regs;

    if (NIL_P(match)) return Qnil;
    match_check(match);
    regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
    if (BEG(0) == -1) return Qnil;
    str = rb_str_subseq(RMATCH(match)->str, 0, BEG(0));
    return str;
}
regexp → regexp click to toggle source

Returns the regexp that produced the match:

m = /a.*b/.match("abc") # => #<MatchData "ab">
m.regexp                # => /a.*b/
static VALUE
match_regexp(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE regexp;
    match_check(match);
    regexp = RMATCH(match)->regexp;
    if (NIL_P(regexp)) {
        VALUE str = rb_reg_nth_match(0, match);
        regexp = rb_reg_regcomp(rb_reg_quote(str));
        RMATCH(match)->regexp = regexp;
    }
    return regexp;
}
size → integer click to toggle source

Returns size of the match array:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.size # => 5

MatchData#length is an alias for MatchData.size.

static VALUE
match_size(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    return INT2FIX(RMATCH_REGS(match)->num_regs);
}
Also aliased as: length
string → string click to toggle source

Returns the target string if it was frozen; otherwise, returns a frozen copy of the target string:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.string # => "THX1138."
static VALUE
match_string(VALUE match)
{
    match_check(match);
    return RMATCH(match)->str;  /* str is frozen */
}
to_a → array click to toggle source

Returns the array of matches:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.to_a # => ["HX1138", "H", "X", "113", "8"]

Related: MatchData#captures.

static VALUE
match_to_a(VALUE match)
{
    return match_array(match, 0);
}
to_s → string click to toggle source

Returns the matched string:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138.")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.to_s # => "HX1138"

m = /(?<foo>.)(.)(?<bar>.+)/.match("hoge")
# => #<MatchData "hoge" foo:"h" bar:"ge">
m.to_s # => "hoge"

Related: MatchData.inspect.

static VALUE
match_to_s(VALUE match)
{
    VALUE str = rb_reg_last_match(match);

    match_check(match);
    if (NIL_P(str)) str = rb_str_new(0,0);
    return str;
}
values_at(*indexes) → array click to toggle source

Returns match and captures at the given indexes, which may include any mixture of:

  • Integers.

  • Ranges.

  • Names (strings and symbols).

Examples:

m = /(.)(.)(\d+)(\d)/.match("THX1138: The Movie")
# => #<MatchData "HX1138" 1:"H" 2:"X" 3:"113" 4:"8">
m.values_at(0, 2, -2) # => ["HX1138", "X", "113"]
m.values_at(1..2, -1) # => ["H", "X", "8"]

m = /(?<a>\d+) *(?<op>[+\-*\/]) *(?<b>\d+)/.match("1 + 2")
# => #<MatchData "1 + 2" a:"1" op:"+" b:"2">
m.values_at(0, 1..2, :a, :b, :op)
# => ["1 + 2", "1", "+", "1", "2", "+"]
static VALUE
match_values_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE match)
{
    VALUE result;
    int i;

    match_check(match);
    result = rb_ary_new2(argc);

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
        if (FIXNUM_P(argv[i])) {
            rb_ary_push(result, rb_reg_nth_match(FIX2INT(argv[i]), match));
        }
        else {
            int num = namev_to_backref_number(RMATCH_REGS(match), RMATCH(match)->regexp, argv[i]);
            if (num >= 0) {
                rb_ary_push(result, rb_reg_nth_match(num, match));
            }
            else {
                match_ary_aref(match, argv[i], result);
            }
        }
    }
    return result;
}