class Integer

An Integer object represents an integer value.

You can create an Integer object explicitly with:

You can convert certain objects to Integers with:

An attempt to add a singleton method to an instance of this class causes an exception to be raised.

What’s Here

First, what’s elsewhere. Class Integer:

Here, class Integer provides methods for:

Querying

Comparing

Converting

Other

Constants

GMP_VERSION

The version of loaded GMP.

Public Class Methods

sqrt(numeric) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the integer square root of the non-negative integer n, which is the largest non-negative integer less than or equal to the square root of numeric.

Integer.sqrt(0)       # => 0
Integer.sqrt(1)       # => 1
Integer.sqrt(24)      # => 4
Integer.sqrt(25)      # => 5
Integer.sqrt(10**400) # => 10**200

If numeric is not an Integer, it is converted to an Integer:

Integer.sqrt(Complex(4, 0))  # => 2
Integer.sqrt(Rational(4, 1)) # => 2
Integer.sqrt(4.0)            # => 2
Integer.sqrt(3.14159)        # => 1

This method is equivalent to Math.sqrt(numeric).floor, except that the result of the latter code may differ from the true value due to the limited precision of floating point arithmetic.

Integer.sqrt(10**46)    # => 100000000000000000000000
Math.sqrt(10**46).floor # => 99999999999999991611392

Raises an exception if numeric is negative.

static VALUE
rb_int_s_isqrt(VALUE self, VALUE num)
{
    unsigned long n, sq;
    num = rb_to_int(num);
    if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        if (FIXNUM_NEGATIVE_P(num)) {
            domain_error("isqrt");
        }
        n = FIX2ULONG(num);
        sq = rb_ulong_isqrt(n);
        return LONG2FIX(sq);
    }
    else {
        size_t biglen;
        if (RBIGNUM_NEGATIVE_P(num)) {
            domain_error("isqrt");
        }
        biglen = BIGNUM_LEN(num);
        if (biglen == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
#if SIZEOF_BDIGIT <= SIZEOF_LONG
        /* short-circuit */
        if (biglen == 1) {
            n = BIGNUM_DIGITS(num)[0];
            sq = rb_ulong_isqrt(n);
            return ULONG2NUM(sq);
        }
#endif
        return rb_big_isqrt(num);
    }
}
try_convert(object) → object, integer, or nil click to toggle source

If object is an Integer object, returns object.

Integer.try_convert(1) # => 1

Otherwise if object responds to :to_int, calls object.to_int and returns the result.

Integer.try_convert(1.25) # => 1

Returns nil if object does not respond to :to_int

Integer.try_convert([]) # => nil

Raises an exception unless object.to_int returns an Integer object.

# File numeric.rb, line 264
def Integer.try_convert(num)
=begin
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_check_integer_type(num)'
=end
end

Public Instance Methods

self % other → real_number click to toggle source

Returns self modulo other as a real number.

For integer n and real number r, these expressions are equivalent:

n % r
n-r*(n/r).floor
n.divmod(r)[1]

See Numeric#divmod.

Examples:

10 % 2              # => 0
10 % 3              # => 1
10 % 4              # => 2

10 % -2             # => 0
10 % -3             # => -2
10 % -4             # => -2

10 % 3.0            # => 1.0
10 % Rational(3, 1) # => (1/1)

Integer#modulo is an alias for Integer#%.

VALUE
rb_int_modulo(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_mod(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_modulo(x, y);
    }
    return num_modulo(x, y);
}
Also aliased as: modulo
self & other → integer click to toggle source

Bitwise AND; each bit in the result is 1 if both corresponding bits in self and other are 1, 0 otherwise:

"%04b" % (0b0101 & 0b0110) # => "0100"

Raises an exception if other is not an Integer.

Related: Integer#| (bitwise OR), Integer#^ (bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR).

VALUE
rb_int_and(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_and(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_and(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self * numeric → numeric_result click to toggle source

Performs multiplication:

4 * 2              # => 8
4 * -2             # => -8
-4 * 2             # => -8
4 * 2.0            # => 8.0
4 * Rational(1, 3) # => (4/3)
4 * Complex(2, 0)  # => (8+0i)
VALUE
rb_int_mul(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_mul(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_mul(x, y);
    }
    return rb_num_coerce_bin(x, y, '*');
}
self ** numeric → numeric_result click to toggle source

Raises self to the power of numeric:

2 ** 3              # => 8
2 ** -3             # => (1/8)
-2 ** 3             # => -8
-2 ** -3            # => (-1/8)
2 ** 3.3            # => 9.849155306759329
2 ** Rational(3, 1) # => (8/1)
2 ** Complex(3, 0)  # => (8+0i)
VALUE
rb_int_pow(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_pow(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_pow(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self + numeric → numeric_result click to toggle source

Performs addition:

2 + 2              # => 4
-2 + 2             # => 0
-2 + -2            # => -4
2 + 2.0            # => 4.0
2 + Rational(2, 1) # => (4/1)
2 + Complex(2, 0)  # => (4+0i)
VALUE
rb_int_plus(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_plus(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_plus(x, y);
    }
    return rb_num_coerce_bin(x, y, '+');
}
self - numeric → numeric_result click to toggle source

Performs subtraction:

4 - 2              # => 2
-4 - 2             # => -6
-4 - -2            # => -2
4 - 2.0            # => 2.0
4 - Rational(2, 1) # => (2/1)
4 - Complex(2, 0)  # => (2+0i)
VALUE
rb_int_minus(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_minus(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_minus(x, y);
    }
    return rb_num_coerce_bin(x, y, '-');
}
-int → integer click to toggle source

Returns int, negated.

# File numeric.rb, line 52
def -@
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_uminus(self)'
end
self / numeric → numeric_result click to toggle source

Performs division; for integer numeric, truncates the result to an integer:

 4 / 3              # => 1
 4 / -3             # => -2
 -4 / 3             # => -2
 -4 / -3            # => 1

For other +numeric+, returns non-integer result:

 4 / 3.0            # => 1.3333333333333333
 4 / Rational(3, 1) # => (4/3)
 4 / Complex(3, 0)  # => ((4/3)+0i)
VALUE
rb_int_div(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_div(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_div(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self < other → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if the value of self is less than that of other:

  1 < 0              # => false
  1 < 1              # => false
  1 < 2              # => true
  1 < 0.5            # => false
  1 < Rational(1, 2) # => false

Raises an exception if the comparison cannot be made.
static VALUE
int_lt(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_lt(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_lt(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self << count → integer click to toggle source

Returns self with bits shifted count positions to the left, or to the right if count is negative:

n = 0b11110000
"%08b" % (n << 1)  # => "111100000"
"%08b" % (n << 3)  # => "11110000000"
"%08b" % (n << -1) # => "01111000"
"%08b" % (n << -3) # => "00011110"

Related: Integer#>>.

VALUE
rb_int_lshift(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return rb_fix_lshift(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_lshift(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self <= real → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if the value of self is less than or equal to that of other:

1 <= 0              # => false
1 <= 1              # => true
1 <= 2              # => true
1 <= 0.5            # => false
1 <= Rational(1, 2) # => false

Raises an exception if the comparison cannot be made.

static VALUE
int_le(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_le(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_le(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self <=> other → -1, 0, +1, or nil click to toggle source

Returns:

  • -1, if self is less than other.

  • 0, if self is equal to other.

  • 1, if self is greater then other.

  • nil, if self and other are incomparable.

Examples:

1 <=> 2              # => -1
1 <=> 1              # => 0
1 <=> 0              # => 1
1 <=> 'foo'          # => nil

1 <=> 1.0            # => 0
1 <=> Rational(1, 1) # => 0
1 <=> Complex(1, 0)  # => 0

This method is the basis for comparisons in module Comparable.

VALUE
rb_int_cmp(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_cmp(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_cmp(x, y);
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eNotImpError, "need to define `<=>' in %s", rb_obj_classname(x));
    }
}
self == other → true or false

Returns true if self is numerically equal to other; false otherwise.

1 == 2     #=> false
1 == 1.0   #=> true

Related: Integer#eql? (requires other to be an Integer).

Integer#=== is an alias for Integer#==.

Alias for: ===
=== == other -> true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if self is numerically equal to other; false otherwise.

1 == 2     #=> false
1 == 1.0   #=> true

Related: Integer#eql? (requires other to be an Integer).

Integer#=== is an alias for Integer#==.

VALUE
rb_int_equal(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_equal(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_eq(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
Also aliased as: ==
self > other → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if the value of self is greater than that of other:

  1 > 0              # => true
  1 > 1              # => false
  1 > 2              # => false
  1 > 0.5            # => true
  1 > Rational(1, 2) # => true

Raises an exception if the comparison cannot be made.
VALUE
rb_int_gt(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_gt(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_gt(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self >= real → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if the value of self is greater than or equal to that of other:

1 >= 0              # => true
1 >= 1              # => true
1 >= 2              # => false
1 >= 0.5            # => true
1 >= Rational(1, 2) # => true

Raises an exception if the comparison cannot be made.

VALUE
rb_int_ge(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_ge(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_ge(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self >> count → integer click to toggle source

Returns self with bits shifted count positions to the right, or to the left if count is negative:

n = 0b11110000
"%08b" % (n >> 1)  # => "01111000"
"%08b" % (n >> 3)  # => "00011110"
"%08b" % (n >> -1) # => "111100000"
"%08b" % (n >> -3) # => "11110000000"

Related: Integer#<<.

static VALUE
rb_int_rshift(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return rb_fix_rshift(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_rshift(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
self[offset] → 0 or 1 click to toggle source
self[offset, size] → integer
self[range] → integer

Returns a slice of bits from self.

With argument offset, returns the bit at the given offset, where offset 0 refers to the least significant bit:

n = 0b10 # => 2
n[0]     # => 0
n[1]     # => 1
n[2]     # => 0
n[3]     # => 0

In principle, n[i] is equivalent to (n >> i) & 1. Thus, negative index always returns zero:

255[-1] # => 0

With arguments offset and size, returns size bits from self, beginning at offset and including bits of greater significance:

n = 0b111000       # => 56
"%010b" % n[0, 10] # => "0000111000"
"%010b" % n[4, 10] # => "0000000011"

With argument range, returns range.size bits from self, beginning at range.begin and including bits of greater significance:

n = 0b111000      # => 56
"%010b" % n[0..9] # => "0000111000"
"%010b" % n[4..9] # => "0000000011"

Raises an exception if the slice cannot be constructed.

static VALUE
int_aref(int const argc, VALUE * const argv, VALUE const num)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    if (argc == 2) {
        return int_aref2(num, argv[0], argv[1]);
    }
    return int_aref1(num, argv[0]);

    return Qnil;
}
self ^ other → integer click to toggle source

Bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR; each bit in the result is 1 if the corresponding bits in self and other are different, 0 otherwise:

"%04b" % (0b0101 ^ 0b0110) # => "0011"

Raises an exception if other is not an Integer.

Related: Integer#& (bitwise AND), Integer#| (bitwise OR).

static VALUE
int_xor(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_xor(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_xor(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
abs → integer click to toggle source

Returns the absolute value of int.

(-12345).abs   #=> 12345
-12345.abs     #=> 12345
12345.abs      #=> 12345

Integer#magnitude is an alias for Integer#abs.

# File numeric.rb, line 84
def abs
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_abs(self)'
end
Also aliased as: magnitude
allbits?(mask) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if all bits that are set (=1) in mask are also set in self; returns false otherwise.

Example values:

0b1010101  self
0b1010100  mask
0b1010100  self & mask
     true  self.allbits?(mask)

0b1010100  self
0b1010101  mask
0b1010100  self & mask
    false  self.allbits?(mask)

Related: Integer#anybits?, Integer#nobits?.

static VALUE
int_allbits_p(VALUE num, VALUE mask)
{
    mask = rb_to_int(mask);
    return rb_int_equal(rb_int_and(num, mask), mask);
}
anybits?(mask) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if any bit that is set (=1) in mask is also set in self; returns false otherwise.

Example values:

0b10000010  self
0b11111111  mask
0b10000010  self & mask
      true  self.anybits?(mask)

0b00000000  self
0b11111111  mask
0b00000000  self & mask
     false  self.anybits?(mask)

Related: Integer#allbits?, Integer#nobits?.

static VALUE
int_anybits_p(VALUE num, VALUE mask)
{
    mask = rb_to_int(mask);
    return RBOOL(!int_zero_p(rb_int_and(num, mask)));
}
bit_length → integer click to toggle source

Returns the number of bits of the value of int.

“Number of bits” means the bit position of the highest bit which is different from the sign bit (where the least significant bit has bit position 1). If there is no such bit (zero or minus one), zero is returned.

I.e. this method returns ceil(log2(int < 0 ? -int : int+1)).

(-2**1000-1).bit_length   #=> 1001
(-2**1000).bit_length     #=> 1000
(-2**1000+1).bit_length   #=> 1000
(-2**12-1).bit_length     #=> 13
(-2**12).bit_length       #=> 12
(-2**12+1).bit_length     #=> 12
-0x101.bit_length         #=> 9
-0x100.bit_length         #=> 8
-0xff.bit_length          #=> 8
-2.bit_length             #=> 1
-1.bit_length             #=> 0
0.bit_length              #=> 0
1.bit_length              #=> 1
0xff.bit_length           #=> 8
0x100.bit_length          #=> 9
(2**12-1).bit_length      #=> 12
(2**12).bit_length        #=> 13
(2**12+1).bit_length      #=> 13
(2**1000-1).bit_length    #=> 1000
(2**1000).bit_length      #=> 1001
(2**1000+1).bit_length    #=> 1001

This method can be used to detect overflow in Array#pack as follows:

if n.bit_length < 32
  [n].pack("l") # no overflow
else
  raise "overflow"
end
# File numeric.rb, line 130
def bit_length
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_bit_length(self)'
end
ceil(ndigits = 0) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the smallest number greater than or equal to self with a precision of ndigits decimal digits.

When the precision is negative, the returned value is an integer with at least ndigits.abs trailing zeros:

555.ceil(-1)  # => 560
555.ceil(-2)  # => 600
-555.ceil(-2) # => -500
555.ceil(-3)  # => 1000

Returns self when ndigits is zero or positive.

555.ceil     # => 555
555.ceil(50) # => 555

Related: Integer#floor.

static VALUE
int_ceil(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE num)
{
    int ndigits;

    if (!rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1)) return num;
    ndigits = NUM2INT(argv[0]);
    if (ndigits >= 0) {
        return num;
    }
    return rb_int_ceil(num, ndigits);
}
ceildiv(other) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the result of division self by other. The result is rounded up to the nearest integer.

3.ceildiv(3) # => 1
4.ceildiv(3) # => 2

4.ceildiv(-3) # => -1
-4.ceildiv(3) # => -1
-4.ceildiv(-3) # => 2

3.ceildiv(1.2) # => 3
# File numeric.rb, line 244
def ceildiv(other)
  -div(-other)
end
chr → string click to toggle source
chr(encoding) → string

Returns a 1-character string containing the character represented by the value of self, according to the given encoding.

65.chr                   # => "A"
0.chr                    # => "\x00"
255.chr                  # => "\xFF"
string = 255.chr(Encoding::UTF_8)
string.encoding          # => Encoding::UTF_8

Raises an exception if self is negative.

Related: Integer#ord.

static VALUE
int_chr(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE num)
{
    char c;
    unsigned int i;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    if (rb_num_to_uint(num, &i) == 0) {
    }
    else if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "%ld out of char range", FIX2LONG(num));
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "bignum out of char range");
    }

    switch (argc) {
      case 0:
        if (0xff < i) {
            enc = rb_default_internal_encoding();
            if (!enc) {
                rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "%u out of char range", i);
            }
            goto decode;
        }
        c = (char)i;
        if (i < 0x80) {
            return rb_usascii_str_new(&c, 1);
        }
        else {
            return rb_str_new(&c, 1);
        }
      case 1:
        break;
      default:
        rb_error_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    }
    enc = rb_to_encoding(argv[0]);
    if (!enc) enc = rb_ascii8bit_encoding();
  decode:
    return rb_enc_uint_chr(i, enc);
}
coerce(numeric) → array click to toggle source

Returns an array with both a numeric and a int represented as Integer objects or Float objects.

This is achieved by converting numeric to an Integer or a Float.

A TypeError is raised if the numeric is not an Integer or a Float type.

(0x3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF+1).coerce(42)   #=> [42, 4611686018427387904]
static VALUE
rb_int_coerce(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(y)) {
        return rb_assoc_new(y, x);
    }
    else {
        x = rb_Float(x);
        y = rb_Float(y);
        return rb_assoc_new(y, x);
    }
}
denominator → 1 click to toggle source

Returns 1.

static VALUE
integer_denominator(VALUE self)
{
    return INT2FIX(1);
}
digits(base = 10) → array_of_integers click to toggle source

Returns an array of integers representing the base-radix digits of self; the first element of the array represents the least significant digit:

12345.digits      # => [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
12345.digits(7)   # => [4, 6, 6, 0, 5]
12345.digits(100) # => [45, 23, 1]

Raises an exception if self is negative or base is less than 2.

static VALUE
rb_int_digits(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE num)
{
    VALUE base_value;
    long base;

    if (rb_num_negative_p(num))
        rb_raise(rb_eMathDomainError, "out of domain");

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1)) {
        base_value = rb_to_int(argv[0]);
        if (!RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(base_value))
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "wrong argument type %s (expected Integer)",
                     rb_obj_classname(argv[0]));
        if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(base_value))
            return rb_int_digits_bigbase(num, base_value);

        base = FIX2LONG(base_value);
        if (base < 0)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative radix");
        else if (base < 2)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid radix %ld", base);
    }
    else
        base = 10;

    if (FIXNUM_P(num))
        return rb_fix_digits(num, base);
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(num))
        return rb_int_digits_bigbase(num, LONG2FIX(base));

    return Qnil;
}
div(numeric) → integer click to toggle source

Performs integer division; returns the integer result of dividing self by numeric:

  4.div(3)      # => 1
  4.div(-3)      # => -2
  -4.div(3)      # => -2
  -4.div(-3)      # => 1
  4.div(3.0)      # => 1
  4.div(Rational(3, 1))      # => 1

Raises an exception if +numeric+ does not have method +div+.
VALUE
rb_int_idiv(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_idiv(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_idiv(x, y);
    }
    return num_div(x, y);
}
divmod(other) → array click to toggle source

Returns a 2-element array [q, r], where

q = (self/other).floor    # Quotient
r = self % other          # Remainder

Examples:

11.divmod(4)              # => [2, 3]
11.divmod(-4)             # => [-3, -1]
-11.divmod(4)             # => [-3, 1]
-11.divmod(-4)            # => [2, -3]

12.divmod(4)              # => [3, 0]
12.divmod(-4)             # => [-3, 0]
-12.divmod(4)             # => [-3, 0]
-12.divmod(-4)            # => [3, 0]

13.divmod(4.0)            # => [3, 1.0]
13.divmod(Rational(4, 1)) # => [3, (1/1)]
VALUE
rb_int_divmod(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_divmod(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_divmod(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
downto(limit) {|i| ... } → self click to toggle source
downto(limit) → enumerator

Calls the given block with each integer value from self down to limit; returns self:

a = []
10.downto(5) {|i| a << i }              # => 10
a                                       # => [10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5]
a = []
0.downto(-5) {|i| a << i }              # => 0
a                                       # => [0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5]
4.downto(5) {|i| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => 4

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

static VALUE
int_downto(VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(from, 1, &to, int_downto_size);
    if (FIXNUM_P(from) && FIXNUM_P(to)) {
        long i, end;

        end = FIX2LONG(to);
        for (i=FIX2LONG(from); i >= end; i--) {
            rb_yield(LONG2FIX(i));
        }
    }
    else {
        VALUE i = from, c;

        while (!(c = rb_funcall(i, '<', 1, to))) {
            rb_yield(i);
            i = rb_funcall(i, '-', 1, INT2FIX(1));
        }
        if (NIL_P(c)) rb_cmperr(i, to);
    }
    return from;
}
even? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if int is an even number.

# File numeric.rb, line 139
def even?
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_even_p(self)'
end
fdiv(numeric) → float click to toggle source

Returns the Float result of dividing self by numeric:

4.fdiv(2)      # => 2.0
4.fdiv(-2)      # => -2.0
-4.fdiv(2)      # => -2.0
4.fdiv(2.0)      # => 2.0
4.fdiv(Rational(3, 4))      # => 5.333333333333333

Raises an exception if numeric cannot be converted to a Float.

VALUE
rb_int_fdiv(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return DBL2NUM(rb_int_fdiv_double(x, y));
    }
    return Qnil;
}
floor(ndigits = 0) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the largest number less than or equal to self with a precision of ndigits decimal digits.

When ndigits is negative, the returned value has at least ndigits.abs trailing zeros:

555.floor(-1)  # => 550
555.floor(-2)  # => 500
-555.floor(-2) # => -600
555.floor(-3)  # => 0

Returns self when ndigits is zero or positive.

555.floor     # => 555
555.floor(50) # => 555

Related: Integer#ceil.

static VALUE
int_floor(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE num)
{
    int ndigits;

    if (!rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1)) return num;
    ndigits = NUM2INT(argv[0]);
    if (ndigits >= 0) {
        return num;
    }
    return rb_int_floor(num, ndigits);
}
gcd(other_int) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the greatest common divisor of the two integers. The result is always positive. 0.gcd(x) and x.gcd(0) return x.abs.

36.gcd(60)                  #=> 12
2.gcd(2)                    #=> 2
3.gcd(-7)                   #=> 1
((1<<31)-1).gcd((1<<61)-1)  #=> 1
VALUE
rb_gcd(VALUE self, VALUE other)
{
    other = nurat_int_value(other);
    return f_gcd(self, other);
}
gcdlcm(other_int) → array click to toggle source

Returns an array with the greatest common divisor and the least common multiple of the two integers, [gcd, lcm].

36.gcdlcm(60)                  #=> [12, 180]
2.gcdlcm(2)                    #=> [2, 2]
3.gcdlcm(-7)                   #=> [1, 21]
((1<<31)-1).gcdlcm((1<<61)-1)  #=> [1, 4951760154835678088235319297]
VALUE
rb_gcdlcm(VALUE self, VALUE other)
{
    other = nurat_int_value(other);
    return rb_assoc_new(f_gcd(self, other), f_lcm(self, other));
}
inspect(*args)

Returns a string containing the place-value representation of self in radix base (in 2..36).

12345.to_s               # => "12345"
12345.to_s(2)            # => "11000000111001"
12345.to_s(8)            # => "30071"
12345.to_s(10)           # => "12345"
12345.to_s(16)           # => "3039"
12345.to_s(36)           # => "9ix"
78546939656932.to_s(36)  # => "rubyrules"

Raises an exception if base is out of range.

Integer#inspect is an alias for Integer#to_s.

Alias for: to_s
integer? → true click to toggle source

Since int is already an Integer, this always returns true.

# File numeric.rb, line 148
def integer?
  return true
end
lcm(other_int) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the least common multiple of the two integers. The result is always positive. 0.lcm(x) and x.lcm(0) return zero.

36.lcm(60)                  #=> 180
2.lcm(2)                    #=> 2
3.lcm(-7)                   #=> 21
((1<<31)-1).lcm((1<<61)-1)  #=> 4951760154835678088235319297
VALUE
rb_lcm(VALUE self, VALUE other)
{
    other = nurat_int_value(other);
    return f_lcm(self, other);
}
magnitude → integer
Alias for: abs
modulo(p1)

Returns self modulo other as a real number.

For integer n and real number r, these expressions are equivalent:

n % r
n-r*(n/r).floor
n.divmod(r)[1]

See Numeric#divmod.

Examples:

10 % 2              # => 0
10 % 3              # => 1
10 % 4              # => 2

10 % -2             # => 0
10 % -3             # => -2
10 % -4             # => -2

10 % 3.0            # => 1.0
10 % Rational(3, 1) # => (1/1)

Integer#modulo is an alias for Integer#%.

Alias for: %
next()

Returns the successor integer of self (equivalent to self + 1):

1.succ  #=> 2
-1.succ #=> 0

Integer#next is an alias for Integer#succ.

Related: Integer#pred (predecessor value).

Alias for: succ
nobits?(mask) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if no bit that is set (=1) in mask is also set in self; returns false otherwise.

Example values:

0b11110000  self
0b00001111  mask
0b00000000  self & mask
      true  self.nobits?(mask)

0b00000001  self
0b11111111  mask
0b00000001  self & mask
     false  self.nobits?(mask)

Related: Integer#allbits?, Integer#anybits?.

static VALUE
int_nobits_p(VALUE num, VALUE mask)
{
    mask = rb_to_int(mask);
    return RBOOL(int_zero_p(rb_int_and(num, mask)));
}
numerator → self click to toggle source

Returns self.

static VALUE
integer_numerator(VALUE self)
{
    return self;
}
odd? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if int is an odd number.

# File numeric.rb, line 164
def odd?
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_odd_p(self)'
end
ord → self click to toggle source

Returns the int itself.

97.ord   #=> 97

This method is intended for compatibility to character literals in Ruby 1.9.

For example, ?a.ord returns 97 both in 1.8 and 1.9.

# File numeric.rb, line 180
def ord
  return self
end
pow(numeric) → numeric click to toggle source
pow(integer, integer) → integer

Returns (modular) exponentiation as:

a.pow(b)     #=> same as a**b
a.pow(b, m)  #=> same as (a**b) % m, but avoids huge temporary values
VALUE
rb_int_powm(int const argc, VALUE * const argv, VALUE const num)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);

    if (argc == 1) {
        return rb_int_pow(num, argv[0]);
    }
    else {
        VALUE const a = num;
        VALUE const b = argv[0];
        VALUE m = argv[1];
        int nega_flg = 0;
        if ( ! RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(b)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "Integer#pow() 2nd argument not allowed unless a 1st argument is integer");
        }
        if (rb_int_negative_p(b)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "Integer#pow() 1st argument cannot be negative when 2nd argument specified");
        }
        if (!RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(m)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "Integer#pow() 2nd argument not allowed unless all arguments are integers");
        }

        if (rb_int_negative_p(m)) {
            m = rb_int_uminus(m);
            nega_flg = 1;
        }

        if (FIXNUM_P(m)) {
            long const half_val = (long)HALF_LONG_MSB;
            long const mm = FIX2LONG(m);
            if (!mm) rb_num_zerodiv();
            if (mm == 1) return INT2FIX(0);
            if (mm <= half_val) {
                return int_pow_tmp1(rb_int_modulo(a, m), b, mm, nega_flg);
            }
            else {
                return int_pow_tmp2(rb_int_modulo(a, m), b, mm, nega_flg);
            }
        }
        else {
            if (rb_bigzero_p(m)) rb_num_zerodiv();
            if (bignorm(m) == INT2FIX(1)) return INT2FIX(0);
            return int_pow_tmp3(rb_int_modulo(a, m), b, m, nega_flg);
        }
    }
    UNREACHABLE_RETURN(Qnil);
}
pred → next_integer click to toggle source

Returns the predecessor of self (equivalent to self - 1):

1.pred  #=> 0
-1.pred #=> -2

Related: Integer#succ (successor value).

static VALUE
rb_int_pred(VALUE num)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        long i = FIX2LONG(num) - 1;
        return LONG2NUM(i);
    }
    if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(num)) {
        return rb_big_minus(num, INT2FIX(1));
    }
    return num_funcall1(num, '-', INT2FIX(1));
}
rationalize([eps]) → rational click to toggle source

Returns the value as a rational. The optional argument eps is always ignored.

static VALUE
integer_rationalize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    return integer_to_r(self);
}
remainder(other) → real_number click to toggle source

Returns the remainder after dividing self by other.

Examples:

11.remainder(4)              # => 3
11.remainder(-4)             # => 3
-11.remainder(4)             # => -3
-11.remainder(-4)            # => -3

12.remainder(4)              # => 0
12.remainder(-4)             # => 0
-12.remainder(4)             # => 0
-12.remainder(-4)            # => 0

13.remainder(4.0)            # => 1.0
13.remainder(Rational(4, 1)) # => (1/1)
static VALUE
int_remainder(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return num_remainder(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_remainder(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
round(ndigits= 0, half: :up) → integer click to toggle source

Returns self rounded to the nearest value with a precision of ndigits decimal digits.

When ndigits is negative, the returned value has at least ndigits.abs trailing zeros:

555.round(-1)      # => 560
555.round(-2)      # => 600
555.round(-3)      # => 1000
-555.round(-2)     # => -600
555.round(-4)      # => 0

Returns self when ndigits is zero or positive.

555.round     # => 555
555.round(1)  # => 555
555.round(50) # => 555

If keyword argument half is given, and self is equidistant from the two candidate values, the rounding is according to the given half value:

  • :up or nil: round away from zero:

    25.round(-1, half: :up)      # => 30
    (-25).round(-1, half: :up)   # => -30
    
  • :down: round toward zero:

    25.round(-1, half: :down)    # => 20
    (-25).round(-1, half: :down) # => -20
    
  • :even: round toward the candidate whose last nonzero digit is even:

    25.round(-1, half: :even)    # => 20
    15.round(-1, half: :even)    # => 20
    (-25).round(-1, half: :even) # => -20
    

Raises and exception if the value for half is invalid.

Related: Integer#truncate.

static VALUE
int_round(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE num)
{
    int ndigits;
    int mode;
    VALUE nd, opt;

    if (!rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01:", &nd, &opt)) return num;
    ndigits = NUM2INT(nd);
    mode = rb_num_get_rounding_option(opt);
    if (ndigits >= 0) {
        return num;
    }
    return rb_int_round(num, ndigits, mode);
}
size → int click to toggle source

Document-method: Integer#size

Returns the number of bytes in the machine representation of int (machine dependent).

1.size               #=> 8
-1.size              #=> 8
2147483647.size      #=> 8
(256**10 - 1).size   #=> 10
(256**20 - 1).size   #=> 20
(256**40 - 1).size   #=> 40
# File numeric.rb, line 199
def size
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_size(self)'
end
succ → next_integer click to toggle source

Returns the successor integer of self (equivalent to self + 1):

1.succ  #=> 2
-1.succ #=> 0

Integer#next is an alias for Integer#succ.

Related: Integer#pred (predecessor value).

VALUE
rb_int_succ(VALUE num)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        long i = FIX2LONG(num) + 1;
        return LONG2NUM(i);
    }
    if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(num)) {
        return rb_big_plus(num, INT2FIX(1));
    }
    return num_funcall1(num, '+', INT2FIX(1));
}
Also aliased as: next
times {|i| ... } → self click to toggle source
times → enumerator

Calls the given block self times with each integer in (0..self-1):

a = []
5.times {|i| a.push(i) } # => 5
a                        # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

static VALUE
int_dotimes(VALUE num)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(num, 0, 0, int_dotimes_size);

    if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        long i, end;

        end = FIX2LONG(num);
        for (i=0; i<end; i++) {
            rb_yield_1(LONG2FIX(i));
        }
    }
    else {
        VALUE i = INT2FIX(0);

        for (;;) {
            if (!RTEST(int_le(i, num))) break;
            rb_yield(i);
            i = rb_int_plus(i, INT2FIX(1));
        }
    }
    return num;
}
to_bn() click to toggle source

Casts an Integer as an OpenSSL::BN

See ‘man bn` for more info.

# File ext/openssl/lib/openssl/bn.rb, line 37
def to_bn
  OpenSSL::BN::new(self)
end
to_d → bigdecimal click to toggle source

Returns the value of int as a BigDecimal.

require 'bigdecimal'
require 'bigdecimal/util'

42.to_d   # => 0.42e2

See also BigDecimal::new.

# File ext/bigdecimal/lib/bigdecimal/util.rb, line 23
def to_d
  BigDecimal(self)
end
to_f → float click to toggle source

Converts self to a Float:

1.to_f  # => 1.0
-1.to_f # => -1.0

If the value of self does not fit in a Float, the result is infinity:

(10**400).to_f  # => Infinity
(-10**400).to_f # => -Infinity
static VALUE
int_to_f(VALUE num)
{
    double val;

    if (FIXNUM_P(num)) {
        val = (double)FIX2LONG(num);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(num)) {
        val = rb_big2dbl(num);
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eNotImpError, "Unknown subclass for to_f: %s", rb_obj_classname(num));
    }

    return DBL2NUM(val);
}
to_i → integer click to toggle source

Since int is already an Integer, returns self.

to_int is an alias for to_i.

# File numeric.rb, line 210
def to_i
  return self
end
to_int → integer click to toggle source

Since int is already an Integer, returns self.

# File numeric.rb, line 218
def to_int
  return self
end
to_r → rational click to toggle source

Returns the value as a rational.

1.to_r        #=> (1/1)
(1<<64).to_r  #=> (18446744073709551616/1)
static VALUE
integer_to_r(VALUE self)
{
    return rb_rational_new1(self);
}
to_s(base = 10) → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the place-value representation of self in radix base (in 2..36).

12345.to_s               # => "12345"
12345.to_s(2)            # => "11000000111001"
12345.to_s(8)            # => "30071"
12345.to_s(10)           # => "12345"
12345.to_s(16)           # => "3039"
12345.to_s(36)           # => "9ix"
78546939656932.to_s(36)  # => "rubyrules"

Raises an exception if base is out of range.

Integer#inspect is an alias for Integer#to_s.

MJIT_FUNC_EXPORTED VALUE
rb_int_to_s(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE x)
{
    int base;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1))
        base = NUM2INT(argv[0]);
    else
        base = 10;
    return rb_int2str(x, base);
}
Also aliased as: inspect
truncate(ndigits = 0) → integer click to toggle source

Returns self truncated (toward zero) to a precision of ndigits decimal digits.

When ndigits is negative, the returned value has at least ndigits.abs trailing zeros:

555.truncate(-1)  # => 550
555.truncate(-2)  # => 500
-555.truncate(-2) # => -500

Returns self when ndigits is zero or positive.

555.truncate     # => 555
555.truncate(50) # => 555

Related: Integer#round.

static VALUE
int_truncate(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE num)
{
    int ndigits;

    if (!rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1)) return num;
    ndigits = NUM2INT(argv[0]);
    if (ndigits >= 0) {
        return num;
    }
    return rb_int_truncate(num, ndigits);
}
upto(limit) {|i| ... } → self click to toggle source
upto(limit) → enumerator

Calls the given block with each integer value from self up to limit; returns self:

a = []
5.upto(10) {|i| a << i }              # => 5
a                                     # => [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
a = []
-5.upto(0) {|i| a << i }              # => -5
a                                     # => [-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0]
5.upto(4) {|i| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => 5

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

static VALUE
int_upto(VALUE from, VALUE to)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(from, 1, &to, int_upto_size);
    if (FIXNUM_P(from) && FIXNUM_P(to)) {
        long i, end;

        end = FIX2LONG(to);
        for (i = FIX2LONG(from); i <= end; i++) {
            rb_yield(LONG2FIX(i));
        }
    }
    else {
        VALUE i = from, c;

        while (!(c = rb_funcall(i, '>', 1, to))) {
            rb_yield(i);
            i = rb_funcall(i, '+', 1, INT2FIX(1));
        }
        ensure_cmp(c, i, to);
    }
    return from;
}
zero? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if int has a zero value.

# File numeric.rb, line 226
def zero?
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_zero_p(self)'
end
self | other → integer click to toggle source

Bitwise OR; each bit in the result is 1 if either corresponding bit in self or other is 1, 0 otherwise:

"%04b" % (0b0101 | 0b0110) # => "0111"

Raises an exception if other is not an Integer.

Related: Integer#& (bitwise AND), Integer#^ (bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR).

static VALUE
int_or(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    if (FIXNUM_P(x)) {
        return fix_or(x, y);
    }
    else if (RB_BIGNUM_TYPE_P(x)) {
        return rb_big_or(x, y);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
~int → integer click to toggle source

One’s complement: returns a number where each bit is flipped.

Inverts the bits in an Integer. As integers are conceptually of infinite length, the result acts as if it had an infinite number of one bits to the left. In hex representations, this is displayed as two periods to the left of the digits.

sprintf("%X", ~0x1122334455)    #=> "..FEEDDCCBBAA"
# File numeric.rb, line 68
def ~
  Primitive.attr! 'inline'
  Primitive.cexpr! 'rb_int_comp(self)'
end