class String

A String object has an arbitrary sequence of bytes, typically representing text or binary data. A String object may be created using String::new or as literals.

String objects differ from Symbol objects in that Symbol objects are designed to be used as identifiers, instead of text or data.

You can create a String object explicitly with:

You can convert certain objects to Strings with:

Some String methods modify self. Typically, a method whose name ends with ! modifies self and returns self; often a similarly named method (without the !) returns a new string.

In general, if there exist both bang and non-bang version of method, the bang! mutates and the non-bang! does not. However, a method without a bang can also mutate, such as String#replace.

Substitution Methods

These methods perform substitutions:

Each of these methods takes:

The examples in this section mostly use methods String#sub and String#gsub; the principles illustrated apply to all four substitution methods.

Argument pattern

Argument pattern is commonly a regular expression:

s = 'hello'
s.sub(/[aeiou]/, '*')# => "h*llo"
s.gsub(/[aeiou]/, '*') # => "h*ll*"
s.gsub(/[aeiou]/, '')# => "hll"
s.sub(/ell/, 'al')   # => "halo"
s.gsub(/xyzzy/, '*') # => "hello"
'THX1138'.gsub(/\d+/, '00') # => "THX00"

When pattern is a string, all its characters are treated as ordinary characters (not as regexp special characters):

'THX1138'.gsub('\d+', '00') # => "THX1138"

String replacement

If replacement is a string, that string will determine the replacing string that is to be substituted for the matched text.

Each of the examples above uses a simple string as the replacing string.

String replacement may contain back-references to the pattern’s captures:

See regexp.rdoc for details.

Note that within the string replacement, a character combination such as $& is treated as ordinary text, and not as a special match variable. However, you may refer to some special match variables using these combinations:

See regexp.rdoc for details.

Note that \\ is interpreted as an escape, i.e., a single backslash.

Note also that a string literal consumes backslashes. See String Literals for details about string literals.

A back-reference is typically preceded by an additional backslash. For example, if you want to write a back-reference \& in replacement with a double-quoted string literal, you need to write "..\\&..".

If you want to write a non-back-reference string \& in replacement, you need first to escape the backslash to prevent this method from interpreting it as a back-reference, and then you need to escape the backslashes again to prevent a string literal from consuming them: "..\\\\&..".

You may want to use the block form to avoid a lot of backslashes.

Hash replacement

If argument replacement is a hash, and pattern matches one of its keys, the replacing string is the value for that key:

h = {'foo' => 'bar', 'baz' => 'bat'}
'food'.sub('foo', h) # => "bard"

Note that a symbol key does not match:

h = {foo: 'bar', baz: 'bat'}
'food'.sub('foo', h) # => "d"

Block

In the block form, the current match string is passed to the block; the block’s return value becomes the replacing string:

 s = '@'
'1234'.gsub(/\d/) {|match| s.succ! } # => "ABCD"

Special match variables such as $1, $2, $`, $&, and $' are set appropriately.

Whitespace in Strings

In class String, whitespace is defined as a contiguous sequence of characters consisting of any mixture of the following:

Whitespace is relevant for these methods:

String Slices

A slice of a string is a substring that is selected by certain criteria.

These instance methods make use of slicing:

Each of the above methods takes arguments that determine the slice to be copied or replaced.

The arguments have several forms. For string string, the forms are:

string[index]

When non-negative integer argument index is given, the slice is the 1-character substring found in self at character offset index:

'bar'[0]       # => "b"
'bar'[2]       # => "r"
'bar'[20]      # => nil
'тест'[2]      # => "с"
'こんにちは'[4]  # => "は"

When negative integer index is given, the slice begins at the offset given by counting backward from the end of self:

'bar'[-3]         # => "b"
'bar'[-1]         # => "r"
'bar'[-20]        # => nil

string[start, length]

When non-negative integer arguments start and length are given, the slice begins at character offset start, if it exists, and continues for length characters, if available:

'foo'[0, 2]       # => "fo"
'тест'[1, 2]      # => "ес"
'こんにちは'[2, 2]  # => "にち"
# Zero length.
'foo'[2, 0]       # => ""
# Length not entirely available.
'foo'[1, 200]     # => "oo"
# Start out of range.
'foo'[4, 2]      # => nil

Special case: if start is equal to the length of self, the slice is a new empty string:

'foo'[3, 2]   # => ""
'foo'[3, 200] # => ""

When negative start and non-negative length are given, the slice beginning is determined by counting backward from the end of self, and the slice continues for length characters, if available:

'foo'[-2, 2]    # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 200]  # => "oo"
# Start out of range.
'foo'[-4, 2]     # => nil

When negative length is given, there is no slice:

'foo'[1, -1]  # => nil
'foo'[-2, -1] # => nil

string[range]

When Range argument range is given, creates a substring of string using the indices in range. The slice is then determined as above:

'foo'[0..1]    # => "fo"
'foo'[0, 2]    # => "fo"

'foo'[2...2]   # => ""
'foo'[2, 0]    # => ""

'foo'[1..200]  # => "oo"
'foo'[1, 200]  # => "oo"

'foo'[4..5]    # => nil
'foo'[4, 2]    # => nil

'foo'[-4..-3]  # => nil
'foo'[-4, 2]   # => nil

'foo'[3..4]    # => ""
'foo'[3, 2]    # => ""

'foo'[-2..-1]  # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 2]   # => "oo"

'foo'[-2..197] # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 200] # => "oo"

string[regexp, capture = 0]

When the Regexp argument regexp is given, and the capture argument is 0, the slice is the first matching substring found in self:

'foo'[/o/] # => "o"
'foo'[/x/] # => nil
s = 'hello there'
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/] # => "ell"
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/, 0] # => "ell"

If argument capture is given and not 0, it should be either an capture group index (integer) or a capture group name (string or symbol); the slice is the specified capture (see Capturing at Regexp):

s = 'hello there'
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/, 1] # => "l"
s[/(?<vowel>[aeiou])(?<non_vowel>[^aeiou])/, "non_vowel"] # => "l"
s[/(?<vowel>[aeiou])(?<non_vowel>[^aeiou])/, :vowel] # => "e"

If an invalid capture group index is given, there is no slice. If an invalid capture group name is given, IndexError is raised.

string[substring]

When the single String argument substring is given, returns the substring from self if found, otherwise nil:

'foo'['oo'] # => "oo"
'foo'['xx'] # => nil

What’s Here

First, what’s elsewhere. Class String:

Here, class String provides methods that are useful for:

Methods for Creating a String

Methods for a Frozen/Unfrozen String

Methods for Querying

Counts

Substrings

Encodings

Other

Methods for Comparing

Methods for Modifying a String

Each of these methods modifies self.

Insertion

Substitution

Casing

Encoding

Deletion

Methods for Converting to New String

Each of these methods returns a new String based on self, often just a modified copy of self.

Extension

Encoding

Substitution

Casing

Deletion

Duplication

Methods for Converting to Non-String

Each of these methods converts the contents of self to a non-String.

Characters, Bytes, and Clusters

Splitting

Matching

Numerics

Strings and Symbols

Methods for Iterating

Public Class Methods

new(string = '', **opts) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a new String that is a copy of string.

With no arguments, returns the empty string with the Encoding ASCII-8BIT:

s = String.new
s # => ""
s.encoding # => #<Encoding:ASCII-8BIT>

With optional argument string and no keyword arguments, returns a copy of string with the same encoding:

String.new('foo')               # => "foo"
String.new('тест')              # => "тест"
String.new('こんにちは')          # => "こんにちは"

(Unlike String.new, a string literal like '' or a here document literal always has script encoding.)

With optional keyword argument encoding, returns a copy of string with the specified encoding; the encoding may be an Encoding object, an encoding name, or an encoding name alias:

String.new('foo', encoding: Encoding::US_ASCII).encoding # => #<Encoding:US-ASCII>
String.new('foo', encoding: 'US-ASCII').encoding         # => #<Encoding:US-ASCII>
String.new('foo', encoding: 'ASCII').encoding            # => #<Encoding:US-ASCII>

The given encoding need not be valid for the string’s content, and that validity is not checked:

s = String.new('こんにちは', encoding: 'ascii')
s.valid_encoding? # => false

But the given encoding itself is checked:

String.new('foo', encoding: 'bar') # Raises ArgumentError.

With optional keyword argument capacity, returns a copy of string (or an empty string, if string is not given); the given capacity is advisory only, and may or may not set the size of the internal buffer, which may in turn affect performance:

String.new(capacity: 1)
String.new('foo', capacity: 4096)

The string, encoding, and capacity arguments may all be used together:

String.new('hello', encoding: 'UTF-8', capacity: 25)
static VALUE
rb_str_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    static ID keyword_ids[2];
    VALUE orig, opt, venc, vcapa;
    VALUE kwargs[2];
    rb_encoding *enc = 0;
    int n;

    if (!keyword_ids[0]) {
        keyword_ids[0] = rb_id_encoding();
        CONST_ID(keyword_ids[1], "capacity");
    }

    n = rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01:", &orig, &opt);
    if (!NIL_P(opt)) {
        rb_get_kwargs(opt, keyword_ids, 0, 2, kwargs);
        venc = kwargs[0];
        vcapa = kwargs[1];
        if (venc != Qundef && !NIL_P(venc)) {
            enc = rb_to_encoding(venc);
        }
        if (vcapa != Qundef && !NIL_P(vcapa)) {
            long capa = NUM2LONG(vcapa);
            long len = 0;
            int termlen = enc ? rb_enc_mbminlen(enc) : 1;

            if (capa < STR_BUF_MIN_SIZE) {
                capa = STR_BUF_MIN_SIZE;
            }
            if (n == 1) {
                StringValue(orig);
                len = RSTRING_LEN(orig);
                if (capa < len) {
                    capa = len;
                }
                if (orig == str) n = 0;
            }
            str_modifiable(str);
            if (STR_EMBED_P(str)) { /* make noembed always */
                char *new_ptr = ALLOC_N(char, (size_t)capa + termlen);
#if USE_RVARGC
                assert(RSTRING(str)->as.embed.len + 1 <= str_embed_capa(str));
                memcpy(new_ptr, RSTRING(str)->as.embed.ary, RSTRING(str)->as.embed.len + 1);
#else
                memcpy(new_ptr, RSTRING(str)->as.embed.ary, RSTRING_EMBED_LEN_MAX + 1);
#endif
                RSTRING(str)->as.heap.ptr = new_ptr;
            }
            else if (FL_TEST(str, STR_SHARED|STR_NOFREE)) {
                const size_t size = (size_t)capa + termlen;
                const char *const old_ptr = RSTRING_PTR(str);
                const size_t osize = RSTRING(str)->as.heap.len + TERM_LEN(str);
                char *new_ptr = ALLOC_N(char, (size_t)capa + termlen);
                memcpy(new_ptr, old_ptr, osize < size ? osize : size);
                FL_UNSET_RAW(str, STR_SHARED|STR_NOFREE);
                RSTRING(str)->as.heap.ptr = new_ptr;
            }
            else if (STR_HEAP_SIZE(str) != (size_t)capa + termlen) {
                SIZED_REALLOC_N(RSTRING(str)->as.heap.ptr, char,
                        (size_t)capa + termlen, STR_HEAP_SIZE(str));
            }
            RSTRING(str)->as.heap.len = len;
            TERM_FILL(&RSTRING(str)->as.heap.ptr[len], termlen);
            if (n == 1) {
                memcpy(RSTRING(str)->as.heap.ptr, RSTRING_PTR(orig), len);
                rb_enc_cr_str_exact_copy(str, orig);
            }
            FL_SET(str, STR_NOEMBED);
            RSTRING(str)->as.heap.aux.capa = capa;
        }
        else if (n == 1) {
            rb_str_replace(str, orig);
        }
        if (enc) {
            rb_enc_associate(str, enc);
            ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
        }
    }
    else if (n == 1) {
        rb_str_replace(str, orig);
    }
    return str;
}
try_convert(object) → object, new_string, or nil click to toggle source

If object is a String object, returns object.

Otherwise if object responds to :to_str, calls object.to_str and returns the result.

Returns nil if object does not respond to :to_str.

Raises an exception unless object.to_str returns a String object.

static VALUE
rb_str_s_try_convert(VALUE dummy, VALUE str)
{
    return rb_check_string_type(str);
}

Public Instance Methods

string % object → new_string click to toggle source

Returns the result of formatting object into the format specification self (see Kernel#sprintf for formatting details):

"%05d" % 123 # => "00123"

If self contains multiple substitutions, object must be an Array or Hash containing the values to be substituted:

"%-5s: %016x" % [ "ID", self.object_id ] # => "ID   : 00002b054ec93168"
"foo = %{foo}" % {foo: 'bar'} # => "foo = bar"
"foo = %{foo}, baz = %{baz}" % {foo: 'bar', baz: 'bat'} # => "foo = bar, baz = bat"
static VALUE
rb_str_format_m(VALUE str, VALUE arg)
{
    VALUE tmp = rb_check_array_type(arg);

    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
        return rb_str_format(RARRAY_LENINT(tmp), RARRAY_CONST_PTR(tmp), str);
    }
    return rb_str_format(1, &arg, str);
}
string * integer → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a new String containing integer copies of self:

"Ho! " * 3 # => "Ho! Ho! Ho! "
"Ho! " * 0 # => ""
VALUE
rb_str_times(VALUE str, VALUE times)
{
    VALUE str2;
    long n, len;
    char *ptr2;
    int termlen;

    if (times == INT2FIX(1)) {
        return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    }
    if (times == INT2FIX(0)) {
        str2 = str_alloc_embed(rb_cString, 0);
        rb_enc_copy(str2, str);
        return str2;
    }
    len = NUM2LONG(times);
    if (len < 0) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative argument");
    }
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 1 && RSTRING_PTR(str)[0] == 0) {
        if (STR_EMBEDDABLE_P(len, 1)) {
            str2 = str_alloc_embed(rb_cString, len + 1);
            memset(RSTRING_PTR(str2), 0, len + 1);
        }
        else {
            str2 = str_alloc_heap(rb_cString);
            RSTRING(str2)->as.heap.aux.capa = len;
            RSTRING(str2)->as.heap.ptr = ZALLOC_N(char, (size_t)len + 1);
            STR_SET_NOEMBED(str2);
        }
        STR_SET_LEN(str2, len);
        rb_enc_copy(str2, str);
        return str2;
    }
    if (len && LONG_MAX/len <  RSTRING_LEN(str)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "argument too big");
    }

    len *= RSTRING_LEN(str);
    termlen = TERM_LEN(str);
    str2 = str_new0(rb_cString, 0, len, termlen);
    ptr2 = RSTRING_PTR(str2);
    if (len) {
        n = RSTRING_LEN(str);
        memcpy(ptr2, RSTRING_PTR(str), n);
        while (n <= len/2) {
            memcpy(ptr2 + n, ptr2, n);
            n *= 2;
        }
        memcpy(ptr2 + n, ptr2, len-n);
    }
    STR_SET_LEN(str2, len);
    TERM_FILL(&ptr2[len], termlen);
    rb_enc_cr_str_copy_for_substr(str2, str);

    return str2;
}
string + other_string → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a new String containing other_string concatenated to self:

"Hello from " + self.to_s # => "Hello from main"
VALUE
rb_str_plus(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    VALUE str3;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    char *ptr1, *ptr2, *ptr3;
    long len1, len2;
    int termlen;

    StringValue(str2);
    enc = rb_enc_check_str(str1, str2);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str1, ptr1, len1);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str2, ptr2, len2);
    termlen = rb_enc_mbminlen(enc);
    if (len1 > LONG_MAX - len2) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "string size too big");
    }
    str3 = str_new0(rb_cString, 0, len1+len2, termlen);
    ptr3 = RSTRING_PTR(str3);
    memcpy(ptr3, ptr1, len1);
    memcpy(ptr3+len1, ptr2, len2);
    TERM_FILL(&ptr3[len1+len2], termlen);

    ENCODING_CODERANGE_SET(str3, rb_enc_to_index(enc),
                           ENC_CODERANGE_AND(ENC_CODERANGE(str1), ENC_CODERANGE(str2)));
    RB_GC_GUARD(str1);
    RB_GC_GUARD(str2);
    return str3;
}
+string → new_string or self click to toggle source

Returns self if self is not frozen.

Otherwise returns self.dup, which is not frozen.

static VALUE
str_uplus(VALUE str)
{
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(str)) {
        return rb_str_dup(str);
    }
    else {
        return str;
    }
}
-string → frozen_string click to toggle source

Returns a frozen, possibly pre-existing copy of the string.

The returned String will be deduplicated as long as it does not have any instance variables set on it and is not a String subclass.

String#dedup is an alias for String#-@.

static VALUE
str_uminus(VALUE str)
{
    if (!BARE_STRING_P(str) && !rb_obj_frozen_p(str)) {
        str = rb_str_dup(str);
    }
    return rb_fstring(str);
}
Also aliased as: dedup
string << object → string click to toggle source

Concatenates object to self and returns self:

s = 'foo'
s << 'bar' # => "foobar"
s          # => "foobar"

If object is an Integer, the value is considered a codepoint and converted to a character before concatenation:

s = 'foo'
s << 33 # => "foo!"

Related: String#concat, which takes multiple arguments.

VALUE
rb_str_concat(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    unsigned int code;
    rb_encoding *enc = STR_ENC_GET(str1);
    int encidx;

    if (RB_INTEGER_TYPE_P(str2)) {
        if (rb_num_to_uint(str2, &code) == 0) {
        }
        else if (FIXNUM_P(str2)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "%ld out of char range", FIX2LONG(str2));
        }
        else {
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "bignum out of char range");
        }
    }
    else {
        return rb_str_append(str1, str2);
    }

    encidx = rb_ascii8bit_appendable_encoding_index(enc, code);
    if (encidx >= 0) {
        char buf[1];
        buf[0] = (char)code;
        rb_str_cat(str1, buf, 1);
        if (encidx != rb_enc_to_index(enc)) {
            rb_enc_associate_index(str1, encidx);
            ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str1, ENC_CODERANGE_VALID);
        }
    }
    else {
        long pos = RSTRING_LEN(str1);
        int cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str1);
        int len;
        char *buf;

        switch (len = rb_enc_codelen(code, enc)) {
          case ONIGERR_INVALID_CODE_POINT_VALUE:
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "invalid codepoint 0x%X in %s", code, rb_enc_name(enc));
            break;
          case ONIGERR_TOO_BIG_WIDE_CHAR_VALUE:
          case 0:
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "%u out of char range", code);
            break;
        }
        buf = ALLOCA_N(char, len + 1);
        rb_enc_mbcput(code, buf, enc);
        if (rb_enc_precise_mbclen(buf, buf + len + 1, enc) != len) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "invalid codepoint 0x%X in %s", code, rb_enc_name(enc));
        }
        rb_str_resize(str1, pos+len);
        memcpy(RSTRING_PTR(str1) + pos, buf, len);
        if (cr == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT && code > 127)
            cr = ENC_CODERANGE_VALID;
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str1, cr);
    }
    return str1;
}
string <=> other_string → -1, 0, 1, or nil click to toggle source

Compares self and other_string, returning:

  • -1 if other_string is larger.

  • 0 if the two are equal.

  • 1 if other_string is smaller.

  • nil if the two are incomparable.

Examples:

'foo' <=> 'foo' # => 0
'foo' <=> 'food' # => -1
'food' <=> 'foo' # => 1
'FOO' <=> 'foo' # => -1
'foo' <=> 'FOO' # => 1
'foo' <=> 1 # => nil
static VALUE
rb_str_cmp_m(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    int result;
    VALUE s = rb_check_string_type(str2);
    if (NIL_P(s)) {
        return rb_invcmp(str1, str2);
    }
    result = rb_str_cmp(str1, s);
    return INT2FIX(result);
}
string == object → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if object has the same length and content; as self; false otherwise:

s = 'foo'
s == 'foo' # => true
s == 'food' # => false
s == 'FOO' # => false

Returns false if the two strings’ encodings are not compatible:

"\u{e4 f6 fc}".encode("ISO-8859-1") == ("\u{c4 d6 dc}") # => false

If object is not an instance of String but responds to to_str, then the two strings are compared using object.==.

VALUE
rb_str_equal(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    if (str1 == str2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(str2, T_STRING)) {
        if (!rb_respond_to(str2, idTo_str)) {
            return Qfalse;
        }
        return rb_equal(str2, str1);
    }
    return rb_str_eql_internal(str1, str2);
}
Also aliased as: ===
string === object → true or false

Returns true if object has the same length and content; as self; false otherwise:

s = 'foo'
s == 'foo' # => true
s == 'food' # => false
s == 'FOO' # => false

Returns false if the two strings’ encodings are not compatible:

"\u{e4 f6 fc}".encode("ISO-8859-1") == ("\u{c4 d6 dc}") # => false

If object is not an instance of String but responds to to_str, then the two strings are compared using object.==.

Alias for: ==
string =~ regexp → integer or nil click to toggle source
string =~ object → integer or nil

Returns the Integer index of the first substring that matches the given regexp, or nil if no match found:

'foo' =~ /f/ # => 0
'foo' =~ /o/ # => 1
'foo' =~ /x/ # => nil

Note: also updates Special global variables at Regexp.

If the given object is not a Regexp, returns the value returned by object =~ self.

Note that string =~ regexp is different from regexp =~ string (see Regexp#=~):

number= nil
"no. 9" =~ /(?<number>\d+)/
number # => nil (not assigned)
/(?<number>\d+)/ =~ "no. 9"
number #=> "9"
static VALUE
rb_str_match(VALUE x, VALUE y)
{
    switch (OBJ_BUILTIN_TYPE(y)) {
      case T_STRING:
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "type mismatch: String given");

      case T_REGEXP:
        return rb_reg_match(y, x);

      default:
        return rb_funcall(y, idEqTilde, 1, x);
    }
}
string[index] → new_string or nil click to toggle source
string[start, length] → new_string or nil
string[range] → new_string or nil
string[regexp, capture = 0] → new_string or nil
string[substring] → new_string or nil

Returns the substring of self specified by the arguments. See examples at String Slices.

static VALUE
rb_str_aref_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    if (argc == 2) {
        if (RB_TYPE_P(argv[0], T_REGEXP)) {
            return rb_str_subpat(str, argv[0], argv[1]);
        }
        else {
            long beg = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
            long len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
            return rb_str_substr(str, beg, len);
        }
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    return rb_str_aref(str, argv[0]);
}
Also aliased as: slice
string[index] = new_string click to toggle source
string[start, length] = new_string
string[range] = new_string
string[regexp, capture = 0] = new_string
string[substring] = new_string

Replaces all, some, or none of the contents of self; returns new_string. See String Slices.

A few examples:

s = 'foo'
s[2] = 'rtune'     # => "rtune"
s                  # => "fortune"
s[1, 5] = 'init'   # => "init"
s                  # => "finite"
s[3..4] = 'al'     # => "al"
s                  # => "finale"
s[/e$/] = 'ly'     # => "ly"
s                  # => "finally"
s['lly'] = 'ncial' # => "ncial"
s                  # => "financial"

String#slice is an alias for String#[].

static VALUE
rb_str_aset_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    if (argc == 3) {
        if (RB_TYPE_P(argv[0], T_REGEXP)) {
            rb_str_subpat_set(str, argv[0], argv[1], argv[2]);
        }
        else {
            rb_str_splice(str, NUM2LONG(argv[0]), NUM2LONG(argv[1]), argv[2]);
        }
        return argv[2];
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 2, 3);
    return rb_str_aset(str, argv[0], argv[1]);
}
ascii_only? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if self contains only ASCII characters, false otherwise:

'abc'.ascii_only?         # => true
"abc\u{6666}".ascii_only? # => false
static VALUE
rb_str_is_ascii_only_p(VALUE str)
{
    int cr = rb_enc_str_coderange(str);

    return RBOOL(cr == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT);
}
b → string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self that has ASCII-8BIT encoding; the underlying bytes are not modified:

s = "\x99"
s.encoding   # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
t = s.b      # => "\x99"
t.encoding   # => #<Encoding:ASCII-8BIT>

s = "\u4095" # => "䂕"
s.encoding   # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
s.bytes      # => [228, 130, 149]
t = s.b      # => "\xE4\x82\x95"
t.encoding   # => #<Encoding:ASCII-8BIT>
t.bytes      # => [228, 130, 149]
static VALUE
rb_str_b(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE str2;
    if (FL_TEST(str, STR_NOEMBED)) {
        str2 = str_alloc_heap(rb_cString);
    }
    else {
        str2 = str_alloc_embed(rb_cString, RSTRING_EMBED_LEN(str) + TERM_LEN(str));
    }
    str_replace_shared_without_enc(str2, str);

    if (rb_enc_asciicompat(STR_ENC_GET(str))) {
        // BINARY strings can never be broken; they're either 7-bit ASCII or VALID.
        // If we know the receiver's code range then we know the result's code range.
        int cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str);
        switch (cr) {
          case ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT:
            ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str2, ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT);
            break;
          case ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN:
          case ENC_CODERANGE_VALID:
            ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str2, ENC_CODERANGE_VALID);
            break;
          default:
            ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str2);
            break;
        }
    }

    return str2;
}
byteindex(substring, offset = 0) → integer or nil click to toggle source
byteindex(regexp, offset = 0) → integer or nil

Returns the Integer byte-based index of the first occurrence of the given substring, or nil if none found:

'foo'.byteindex('f') # => 0
'foo'.byteindex('o') # => 1
'foo'.byteindex('oo') # => 1
'foo'.byteindex('ooo') # => nil

Returns the Integer byte-based index of the first match for the given Regexp regexp, or nil if none found:

'foo'.byteindex(/f/) # => 0
'foo'.byteindex(/o/) # => 1
'foo'.byteindex(/oo/) # => 1
'foo'.byteindex(/ooo/) # => nil

Integer argument offset, if given, specifies the byte-based position in the string to begin the search:

'foo'.byteindex('o', 1) # => 1
'foo'.byteindex('o', 2) # => 2
'foo'.byteindex('o', 3) # => nil

If offset is negative, counts backward from the end of self:

'foo'.byteindex('o', -1) # => 2
'foo'.byteindex('o', -2) # => 1
'foo'.byteindex('o', -3) # => 1
'foo'.byteindex('o', -4) # => nil

If offset does not land on character (codepoint) boundary, IndexError is raised.

Related: String#index, String#byterindex.

static VALUE
rb_str_byteindex_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE sub;
    VALUE initpos;
    long pos;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &sub, &initpos) == 2) {
        pos = NUM2LONG(initpos);
    }
    else {
        pos = 0;
    }
    if (pos < 0) {
        pos += RSTRING_LEN(str);
        if (pos < 0) {
            if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
                rb_backref_set(Qnil);
            }
            return Qnil;
        }
    }

    if (!str_check_byte_pos(str, pos)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError,
                 "offset %ld does not land on character boundary", pos);
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (pos > RSTRING_LEN(str))
            return Qnil;
        if (rb_reg_search(sub, str, pos, 0) < 0) {
            return Qnil;
        }
        else {
            VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
            struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
            pos = BEG(0);
            return LONG2NUM(pos);
        }
    }
    else {
        StringValue(sub);
        pos = rb_strseq_index(str, sub, pos, 1);
    }

    if (pos == -1) return Qnil;
    return LONG2NUM(pos);
}
byterindex(substring, offset = self.bytesize) → integer or nil click to toggle source
byterindex(regexp, offset = self.bytesize) → integer or nil

Returns the Integer byte-based index of the last occurrence of the given substring, or nil if none found:

'foo'.byterindex('f') # => 0
'foo'.byterindex('o') # => 2
'foo'.byterindex('oo') # => 1
'foo'.byterindex('ooo') # => nil

Returns the Integer byte-based index of the last match for the given Regexp regexp, or nil if none found:

'foo'.byterindex(/f/) # => 0
'foo'.byterindex(/o/) # => 2
'foo'.byterindex(/oo/) # => 1
'foo'.byterindex(/ooo/) # => nil

The last match means starting at the possible last position, not the last of longest matches.

'foo'.byterindex(/o+/) # => 2
$~ #=> #<MatchData "o">

To get the last longest match, needs to combine with negative lookbehind.

'foo'.byterindex(/(?<!o)o+/) # => 1
$~ #=> #<MatchData "oo">

Or String#byteindex with negative lookforward.

'foo'.byteindex(/o+(?!.*o)/) # => 1
$~ #=> #<MatchData "oo">

Integer argument offset, if given and non-negative, specifies the maximum starting byte-based position in the

string to _end_ the search:

 'foo'.byterindex('o', 0) # => nil
 'foo'.byterindex('o', 1) # => 1
 'foo'.byterindex('o', 2) # => 2
 'foo'.byterindex('o', 3) # => 2

If offset is a negative Integer, the maximum starting position in the string to end the search is the sum of the string’s length and offset:

'foo'.byterindex('o', -1) # => 2
'foo'.byterindex('o', -2) # => 1
'foo'.byterindex('o', -3) # => nil
'foo'.byterindex('o', -4) # => nil

If offset does not land on character (codepoint) boundary, IndexError is raised.

Related: String#byteindex.

static VALUE
rb_str_byterindex_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE sub;
    VALUE vpos;
    long pos, len = RSTRING_LEN(str);

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &sub, &vpos) == 2) {
        pos = NUM2LONG(vpos);
        if (pos < 0) {
            pos += len;
            if (pos < 0) {
                if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
                    rb_backref_set(Qnil);
                }
                return Qnil;
            }
        }
        if (pos > len) pos = len;
    }
    else {
        pos = len;
    }

    if (!str_check_byte_pos(str, pos)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError,
                 "offset %ld does not land on character boundary", pos);
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (rb_reg_search(sub, str, pos, 1) >= 0) {
            VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
            struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
            pos = BEG(0);
            return LONG2NUM(pos);
        }
    }
    else {
        StringValue(sub);
        pos = rb_str_byterindex(str, sub, pos);
        if (pos >= 0) return LONG2NUM(pos);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
bytes → array_of_bytes click to toggle source

Returns an array of the bytes in self:

'hello'.bytes # => [104, 101, 108, 108, 111]
'тест'.bytes  # => [209, 130, 208, 181, 209, 129, 209, 130]
'こんにちは'.bytes
# => [227, 129, 147, 227, 130, 147, 227, 129, 171, 227, 129, 161, 227, 129, 175]
static VALUE
rb_str_bytes(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE ary = WANTARRAY("bytes", RSTRING_LEN(str));
    return rb_str_enumerate_bytes(str, ary);
}
bytesize → integer click to toggle source

Returns the count of bytes (not characters) in self:

'foo'.bytesize        # => 3
'тест'.bytesize       # => 8
'こんにちは'.bytesize   # => 15

Contrast with String#length:

'foo'.length       # => 3
'тест'.length      # => 4
'こんにちは'.length  # => 5
static VALUE
rb_str_bytesize(VALUE str)
{
    return LONG2NUM(RSTRING_LEN(str));
}
byteslice(index, length = 1) → string or nil click to toggle source
byteslice(range) → string or nil

Returns a substring of self, or nil if the substring cannot be constructed.

With integer arguments index and length given, returns the substring beginning at the given index of the given length (if possible), or nil if length is negative or index falls outside of self:

s = '0123456789' # => "0123456789"
s.byteslice(2)   # => "2"
s.byteslice(200) # => nil
s.byteslice(4, 3)  # => "456"
s.byteslice(4, 30) # => "456789"
s.byteslice(4, -1) # => nil
s.byteslice(40, 2) # => nil

In either case above, counts backwards from the end of self if index is negative:

s = '0123456789'   # => "0123456789"
s.byteslice(-4)    # => "6"
s.byteslice(-4, 3) # => "678"

With Range argument range given, returns byteslice(range.begin, range.size):

s = '0123456789'    # => "0123456789"
s.byteslice(4..6)   # => "456"
s.byteslice(-6..-4) # => "456"
s.byteslice(5..2)   # => "" # range.size is zero.
s.byteslice(40..42) # => nil

In all cases, a returned string has the same encoding as self:

s.encoding              # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
s.byteslice(4).encoding # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
static VALUE
rb_str_byteslice(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    if (argc == 2) {
        long beg = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
        long len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
        return str_byte_substr(str, beg, len, TRUE);
    }
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    return str_byte_aref(str, argv[0]);
}
bytesplice(index, length, str) → string click to toggle source
bytesplice(range, str) → string

Replaces some or all of the content of self with str, and returns str. The portion of the string affected is determined using the same criteria as String#byteslice, except that length cannot be omitted. If the replacement string is not the same length as the text it is replacing, the string will be adjusted accordingly. The form that take an Integer will raise an IndexError if the value is out of range; the Range form will raise a RangeError. If the beginning or ending offset does not land on character (codepoint) boundary, an IndexError will be raised.

static VALUE
rb_str_bytesplice(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    long beg, end, len, slen;
    VALUE val;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    int cr;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 2, 3);
    if (argc == 2) {
        if (!rb_range_beg_len(argv[0], &beg, &len, RSTRING_LEN(str), 2)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "wrong argument type %s (expected Range)",
                     rb_builtin_class_name(argv[0]));
        }
        val = argv[1];
    }
    else {
        beg = NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
        len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
        val = argv[2];
    }
    if (len < 0) rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "negative length %ld", len);
    slen = RSTRING_LEN(str);
    if ((slen < beg) || ((beg < 0) && (beg + slen < 0))) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld out of string", beg);
    }
    if (beg < 0) {
        beg += slen;
    }
    assert(beg >= 0);
    assert(beg <= slen);
    if (len > slen - beg) {
        len = slen - beg;
    }
    end = beg + len;
    if (!str_check_byte_pos(str, beg)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError,
                 "offset %ld does not land on character boundary", beg);
    }
    if (!str_check_byte_pos(str, end)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError,
                 "offset %ld does not land on character boundary", end);
    }
    StringValue(val);
    enc = rb_enc_check(str, val);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    rb_str_splice_0(str, beg, len, val);
    rb_enc_associate(str, enc);
    cr = ENC_CODERANGE_AND(ENC_CODERANGE(str), ENC_CODERANGE(val));
    if (cr != ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN)
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, cr);
    return val;
}
capitalize(*options) → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the characters in self; the first character is upcased; the remaining characters are downcased:

s = 'hello World!' # => "hello World!"
s.capitalize       # => "Hello world!"

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#capitalize!.

static VALUE
rb_str_capitalize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE | ONIGENC_CASE_TITLECASE;
    VALUE ret;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0 || !RSTRING_PTR(str)) return str;
    if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY) {
        ret = rb_str_new(0, RSTRING_LEN(str));
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, ret, &flags, enc);
    }
    else {
        ret = rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc);
    }
    return ret;
}
capitalize!(*options) → self or nil click to toggle source

Upcases the first character in self; downcases the remaining characters; returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise:

s = 'hello World!' # => "hello World!"
s.capitalize!      # => "Hello world!"
s                  # => "Hello world!"
s.capitalize!      # => nil

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#capitalize.

static VALUE
rb_str_capitalize_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE | ONIGENC_CASE_TITLECASE;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0 || !RSTRING_PTR(str)) return Qnil;
    if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY)
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, str, &flags, enc);
    else
        str_shared_replace(str, rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc));

    if (ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED&flags) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
casecmp(other_string) → -1, 0, 1, or nil click to toggle source

Compares self.downcase and other_string.downcase; returns:

  • -1 if other_string.downcase is larger.

  • 0 if the two are equal.

  • 1 if other_string.downcase is smaller.

  • nil if the two are incomparable.

Examples:

'foo'.casecmp('foo') # => 0
'foo'.casecmp('food') # => -1
'food'.casecmp('foo') # => 1
'FOO'.casecmp('foo') # => 0
'foo'.casecmp('FOO') # => 0
'foo'.casecmp(1) # => nil

See Case Mapping.

Related: String#casecmp?.

static VALUE
rb_str_casecmp(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    VALUE s = rb_check_string_type(str2);
    if (NIL_P(s)) {
        return Qnil;
    }
    return str_casecmp(str1, s);
}
casecmp?(other_string) → true, false, or nil click to toggle source

Returns true if self and other_string are equal after Unicode case folding, otherwise false:

'foo'.casecmp?('foo') # => true
'foo'.casecmp?('food') # => false
'food'.casecmp?('foo') # => false
'FOO'.casecmp?('foo') # => true
'foo'.casecmp?('FOO') # => true

Returns nil if the two values are incomparable:

'foo'.casecmp?(1) # => nil

See Case Mapping.

Related: String#casecmp.

static VALUE
rb_str_casecmp_p(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    VALUE s = rb_check_string_type(str2);
    if (NIL_P(s)) {
        return Qnil;
    }
    return str_casecmp_p(str1, s);
}
center(size, pad_string = ' ') → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a centered copy of self.

If integer argument size is greater than the size (in characters) of self, returns a new string of length size that is a copy of self, centered and padded on both ends with pad_string:

'hello'.center(10)       # => "  hello   "
'  hello'.center(10)     # => "   hello  "
'hello'.center(10, 'ab') # => "abhelloaba"
'тест'.center(10)        # => "   тест   "
'こんにちは'.center(10)    # => "  こんにちは   "

If size is not greater than the size of self, returns a copy of self:

'hello'.center(5)  # => "hello"
'hello'.center(1)  # => "hello"

Related: String#ljust, String#rjust.

static VALUE
rb_str_center(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_justify(argc, argv, str, 'c');
}
chars → array_of_characters click to toggle source

Returns an array of the characters in self:

'hello'.chars     # => ["h", "e", "l", "l", "o"]
'тест'.chars      # => ["т", "е", "с", "т"]
'こんにちは'.chars # => ["こ", "ん", "に", "ち", "は"]
static VALUE
rb_str_chars(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE ary = WANTARRAY("chars", rb_str_strlen(str));
    return rb_str_enumerate_chars(str, ary);
}
chomp(line_sep = $/) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a new string copied from self, with trailing characters possibly removed:

When line_sep is "\n", removes the last one or two characters if they are "\r", "\n", or "\r\n" (but not "\n\r"):

$/                    # => "\n"
"abc\r".chomp         # => "abc"
"abc\n".chomp         # => "abc"
"abc\r\n".chomp       # => "abc"
"abc\n\r".chomp       # => "abc\n"
"тест\r\n".chomp      # => "тест"
"こんにちは\r\n".chomp  # => "こんにちは"

When line_sep is '' (an empty string), removes multiple trailing occurrences of "\n" or "\r\n" (but not "\r" or "\n\r"):

"abc\n\n\n".chomp('')           # => "abc"
"abc\r\n\r\n\r\n".chomp('')     # => "abc"
"abc\n\n\r\n\r\n\n\n".chomp('') # => "abc"
"abc\n\r\n\r\n\r".chomp('')     # => "abc\n\r\n\r\n\r"
"abc\r\r\r".chomp('')           # => "abc\r\r\r"

When line_sep is neither "\n" nor '', removes a single trailing line separator if there is one:

'abcd'.chomp('d')  # => "abc"
'abcdd'.chomp('d') # => "abcd"
static VALUE
rb_str_chomp(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE rs = chomp_rs(argc, argv);
    if (NIL_P(rs)) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    return rb_str_subseq(str, 0, chompped_length(str, rs));
}
chomp!(line_sep = $/) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#chomp, but modifies self in place; returns nil if no modification made, self otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_chomp_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE rs;
    str_modifiable(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return Qnil;
    rs = chomp_rs(argc, argv);
    if (NIL_P(rs)) return Qnil;
    return rb_str_chomp_string(str, rs);
}
chop → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a new string copied from self, with trailing characters possibly removed.

Removes "\r\n" if those are the last two characters.

"abc\r\n".chop      # => "abc"
"тест\r\n".chop     # => "тест"
"こんにちは\r\n".chop # => "こんにちは"

Otherwise removes the last character if it exists.

'abcd'.chop     # => "abc"
'тест'.chop     # => "тес"
'こんにちは'.chop # => "こんにち"
''.chop         # => ""

If you only need to remove the newline separator at the end of the string, String#chomp is a better alternative.

static VALUE
rb_str_chop(VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_subseq(str, 0, chopped_length(str));
}
chop! → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#chop, but modifies self in place; returns nil if self is empty, self otherwise.

Related: String#chomp!.

static VALUE
rb_str_chop_bang(VALUE str)
{
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) > 0) {
        long len;
        len = chopped_length(str);
        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(&RSTRING_PTR(str)[len], TERM_LEN(str));
        if (ENC_CODERANGE(str) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) {
            ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
        }
        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
chr → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the first character of self:

s = 'foo' # => "foo"
s.chr     # => "f"
static VALUE
rb_str_chr(VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_substr(str, 0, 1);
}
clear → self click to toggle source

Removes the contents of self:

s = 'foo' # => "foo"
s.clear   # => ""
static VALUE
rb_str_clear(VALUE str)
{
    str_discard(str);
    STR_SET_EMBED(str);
    STR_SET_EMBED_LEN(str, 0);
    RSTRING_PTR(str)[0] = 0;
    if (rb_enc_asciicompat(STR_ENC_GET(str)))
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT);
    else
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, ENC_CODERANGE_VALID);
    return str;
}
codepoints → array_of_integers click to toggle source

Returns an array of the codepoints in self; each codepoint is the integer value for a character:

'hello'.codepoints     # => [104, 101, 108, 108, 111]
'тест'.codepoints      # => [1090, 1077, 1089, 1090]
'こんにちは'.codepoints # => [12371, 12435, 12395, 12385, 12399]
static VALUE
rb_str_codepoints(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE ary = WANTARRAY("codepoints", rb_str_strlen(str));
    return rb_str_enumerate_codepoints(str, ary);
}
concat(*objects) → string click to toggle source

Concatenates each object in objects to self and returns self:

s = 'foo'
s.concat('bar', 'baz') # => "foobarbaz"
s                      # => "foobarbaz"

For each given object object that is an Integer, the value is considered a codepoint and converted to a character before concatenation:

s = 'foo'
s.concat(32, 'bar', 32, 'baz') # => "foo bar baz"

Related: String#<<, which takes a single argument.

static VALUE
rb_str_concat_multi(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str_modifiable(str);

    if (argc == 1) {
        return rb_str_concat(str, argv[0]);
    }
    else if (argc > 1) {
        int i;
        VALUE arg_str = rb_str_tmp_new(0);
        rb_enc_copy(arg_str, str);
        for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
            rb_str_concat(arg_str, argv[i]);
        }
        rb_str_buf_append(str, arg_str);
    }

    return str;
}
count(*selectors) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the total number of characters in self that are specified by the given selectors (see Multiple Character Selectors):

a = "hello world"
a.count "lo"                   #=> 5
a.count "lo", "o"              #=> 2
a.count "hello", "^l"          #=> 4
a.count "ej-m"                 #=> 4

"hello^world".count "\\^aeiou" #=> 4
"hello-world".count "a\\-eo"   #=> 4

c = "hello world\\r\\n"
c.count "\\"                   #=> 2
c.count "\\A"                  #=> 0
c.count "X-\\w"                #=> 3
static VALUE
rb_str_count(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    char table[TR_TABLE_SIZE];
    rb_encoding *enc = 0;
    VALUE del = 0, nodel = 0, tstr;
    char *s, *send;
    int i;
    int ascompat;
    size_t n = 0;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);

    tstr = argv[0];
    StringValue(tstr);
    enc = rb_enc_check(str, tstr);
    if (argc == 1) {
        const char *ptstr;
        if (RSTRING_LEN(tstr) == 1 && rb_enc_asciicompat(enc) &&
            (ptstr = RSTRING_PTR(tstr),
             ONIGENC_IS_ALLOWED_REVERSE_MATCH(enc, (const unsigned char *)ptstr, (const unsigned char *)ptstr+1)) &&
            !is_broken_string(str)) {
            int clen;
            unsigned char c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(ptstr, ptstr+1, &clen, enc);

            s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
            if (!s || RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
            send = RSTRING_END(str);
            while (s < send) {
                if (*(unsigned char*)s++ == c) n++;
            }
            return SIZET2NUM(n);
        }
    }

    tr_setup_table(tstr, table, TRUE, &del, &nodel, enc);
    for (i=1; i<argc; i++) {
        tstr = argv[i];
        StringValue(tstr);
        enc = rb_enc_check(str, tstr);
        tr_setup_table(tstr, table, FALSE, &del, &nodel, enc);
    }

    s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    if (!s || RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
    send = RSTRING_END(str);
    ascompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);
    while (s < send) {
        unsigned int c;

        if (ascompat && (c = *(unsigned char*)s) < 0x80) {
            if (table[c]) {
                n++;
            }
            s++;
        }
        else {
            int clen;
            c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(s, send, &clen, enc);
            if (tr_find(c, table, del, nodel)) {
                n++;
            }
            s += clen;
        }
    }

    return SIZET2NUM(n);
}
crypt(salt_str) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns the string generated by calling crypt(3) standard library function with str and salt_str, in this order, as its arguments. Please do not use this method any longer. It is legacy; provided only for backward compatibility with ruby scripts in earlier days. It is bad to use in contemporary programs for several reasons:

  • Behaviour of C’s crypt(3) depends on the OS it is run. The generated string lacks data portability.

  • On some OSes such as Mac OS, crypt(3) never fails (i.e. silently ends up in unexpected results).

  • On some OSes such as Mac OS, crypt(3) is not thread safe.

  • So-called “traditional” usage of crypt(3) is very very very weak. According to its manpage, Linux’s traditional crypt(3) output has only 2**56 variations; too easy to brute force today. And this is the default behaviour.

  • In order to make things robust some OSes implement so-called “modular” usage. To go through, you have to do a complex build-up of the salt_str parameter, by hand. Failure in generation of a proper salt string tends not to yield any errors; typos in parameters are normally not detectable.

    • For instance, in the following example, the second invocation of String#crypt is wrong; it has a typo in “round=” (lacks “s”). However the call does not fail and something unexpected is generated.

      "foo".crypt("$5$rounds=1000$salt$") # OK, proper usage
      "foo".crypt("$5$round=1000$salt$")  # Typo not detected
      
  • Even in the “modular” mode, some hash functions are considered archaic and no longer recommended at all; for instance module $1$ is officially abandoned by its author: see phk.freebsd.dk/sagas/md5crypt_eol/ . For another instance module $3$ is considered completely broken: see the manpage of FreeBSD.

  • On some OS such as Mac OS, there is no modular mode. Yet, as written above, crypt(3) on Mac OS never fails. This means even if you build up a proper salt string it generates a traditional DES hash anyways, and there is no way for you to be aware of.

    "foo".crypt("$5$rounds=1000$salt$") # => "$5fNPQMxC5j6."
    

If for some reason you cannot migrate to other secure contemporary password hashing algorithms, install the string-crypt gem and require 'string/crypt' to continue using it.

static VALUE
rb_str_crypt(VALUE str, VALUE salt)
{
#ifdef HAVE_CRYPT_R
    VALUE databuf;
    struct crypt_data *data;
#   define CRYPT_END() ALLOCV_END(databuf)
#else
    extern char *crypt(const char *, const char *);
#   define CRYPT_END() rb_nativethread_lock_unlock(&crypt_mutex.lock)
#endif
    VALUE result;
    const char *s, *saltp;
    char *res;
#ifdef BROKEN_CRYPT
    char salt_8bit_clean[3];
#endif

    StringValue(salt);
    mustnot_wchar(str);
    mustnot_wchar(salt);
    s = StringValueCStr(str);
    saltp = RSTRING_PTR(salt);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(salt) < 2 || !saltp[0] || !saltp[1]) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "salt too short (need >=2 bytes)");
    }

#ifdef BROKEN_CRYPT
    if (!ISASCII((unsigned char)saltp[0]) || !ISASCII((unsigned char)saltp[1])) {
        salt_8bit_clean[0] = saltp[0] & 0x7f;
        salt_8bit_clean[1] = saltp[1] & 0x7f;
        salt_8bit_clean[2] = '\0';
        saltp = salt_8bit_clean;
    }
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_CRYPT_R
    data = ALLOCV(databuf, sizeof(struct crypt_data));
# ifdef HAVE_STRUCT_CRYPT_DATA_INITIALIZED
    data->initialized = 0;
# endif
    res = crypt_r(s, saltp, data);
#else
    crypt_mutex_initialize();
    rb_nativethread_lock_lock(&crypt_mutex.lock);
    res = crypt(s, saltp);
#endif
    if (!res) {
        int err = errno;
        CRYPT_END();
        rb_syserr_fail(err, "crypt");
    }
    result = rb_str_new_cstr(res);
    CRYPT_END();
    return result;
}
-string → frozen_string

Returns a frozen, possibly pre-existing copy of the string.

The returned String will be deduplicated as long as it does not have any instance variables set on it and is not a String subclass.

String#dedup is an alias for String#-@.

Alias for: -@
delete(*selectors) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with characters specified by selectors removed (see Multiple Character Selectors):

"hello".delete "l","lo"        #=> "heo"
"hello".delete "lo"            #=> "he"
"hello".delete "aeiou", "^e"   #=> "hell"
"hello".delete "ej-m"          #=> "ho"
static VALUE
rb_str_delete(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    rb_str_delete_bang(argc, argv, str);
    return str;
}
delete!(*selectors) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#delete, but modifies self in place. Returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_delete_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    char squeez[TR_TABLE_SIZE];
    rb_encoding *enc = 0;
    char *s, *send, *t;
    VALUE del = 0, nodel = 0;
    int modify = 0;
    int i, ascompat, cr;

    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0 || !RSTRING_PTR(str)) return Qnil;
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
        VALUE s = argv[i];

        StringValue(s);
        enc = rb_enc_check(str, s);
        tr_setup_table(s, squeez, i==0, &del, &nodel, enc);
    }

    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    ascompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);
    s = t = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    send = RSTRING_END(str);
    cr = ascompat ? ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT : ENC_CODERANGE_VALID;
    while (s < send) {
        unsigned int c;
        int clen;

        if (ascompat && (c = *(unsigned char*)s) < 0x80) {
            if (squeez[c]) {
                modify = 1;
            }
            else {
                if (t != s) *t = c;
                t++;
            }
            s++;
        }
        else {
            c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(s, send, &clen, enc);

            if (tr_find(c, squeez, del, nodel)) {
                modify = 1;
            }
            else {
                if (t != s) rb_enc_mbcput(c, t, enc);
                t += clen;
                if (cr == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) cr = ENC_CODERANGE_VALID;
            }
            s += clen;
        }
    }
    TERM_FILL(t, TERM_LEN(str));
    STR_SET_LEN(str, t - RSTRING_PTR(str));
    ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, cr);

    if (modify) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
delete_prefix(prefix) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with leading substring prefix removed:

'hello'.delete_prefix('hel')      # => "lo"
'hello'.delete_prefix('llo')      # => "hello"
'тест'.delete_prefix('те')        # => "ст"
'こんにちは'.delete_prefix('こん')  # => "にちは"

Related: String#delete_prefix!, String#delete_suffix.

static VALUE
rb_str_delete_prefix(VALUE str, VALUE prefix)
{
    long prefixlen;

    prefixlen = deleted_prefix_length(str, prefix);
    if (prefixlen <= 0) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);

    return rb_str_subseq(str, prefixlen, RSTRING_LEN(str) - prefixlen);
}
delete_prefix!(prefix) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#delete_prefix, except that self is modified in place. Returns self if the prefix is removed, nil otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_delete_prefix_bang(VALUE str, VALUE prefix)
{
    long prefixlen;
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);

    prefixlen = deleted_prefix_length(str, prefix);
    if (prefixlen <= 0) return Qnil;

    return rb_str_drop_bytes(str, prefixlen);
}
delete_suffix(suffix) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with trailing substring suffix removed:

'hello'.delete_suffix('llo')      # => "he"
'hello'.delete_suffix('hel')      # => "hello"
'тест'.delete_suffix('ст')        # => "те"
'こんにちは'.delete_suffix('ちは')  # => "こんに"

Related: String#delete_suffix!, String#delete_prefix.

static VALUE
rb_str_delete_suffix(VALUE str, VALUE suffix)
{
    long suffixlen;

    suffixlen = deleted_suffix_length(str, suffix);
    if (suffixlen <= 0) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);

    return rb_str_subseq(str, 0, RSTRING_LEN(str) - suffixlen);
}
delete_suffix!(suffix) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#delete_suffix, except that self is modified in place. Returns self if the suffix is removed, nil otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_delete_suffix_bang(VALUE str, VALUE suffix)
{
    long olen, suffixlen, len;
    str_modifiable(str);

    suffixlen = deleted_suffix_length(str, suffix);
    if (suffixlen <= 0) return Qnil;

    olen = RSTRING_LEN(str);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    len = olen - suffixlen;
    STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
    TERM_FILL(&RSTRING_PTR(str)[len], TERM_LEN(str));
    if (ENC_CODERANGE(str) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) {
        ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
    }
    return str;
}
downcase(*options) → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the downcased characters in self:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.downcase         # => "hello world!"

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#downcase!, String#upcase, String#upcase!.

static VALUE
rb_str_downcase(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_DOWNCASE;
    VALUE ret;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (case_option_single_p(flags, enc, str)) {
        ret = rb_str_new(RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_LEN(str));
        str_enc_copy(ret, str);
        downcase_single(ret);
    }
    else if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY) {
        ret = rb_str_new(0, RSTRING_LEN(str));
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, ret, &flags, enc);
    }
    else {
        ret = rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc);
    }

    return ret;
}
downcase!(*options) → self or nil click to toggle source

Downcases the characters in self; returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.downcase!        # => "hello world!"
s                  # => "hello world!"
s.downcase!        # => nil

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#downcase, String#upcase, String#upcase!.

static VALUE
rb_str_downcase_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_DOWNCASE;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (case_option_single_p(flags, enc, str)) {
        if (downcase_single(str))
            flags |= ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED;
    }
    else if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY)
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, str, &flags, enc);
    else
        str_shared_replace(str, rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc));

    if (ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED&flags) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
dump → string click to toggle source

Returns a printable version of self, enclosed in double-quotes, with special characters escaped, and with non-printing characters replaced by hexadecimal notation:

"hello \n ''".dump    # => "\"hello \\n ''\""
"\f\x00\xff\\\"".dump # => "\"\\f\\x00\\xFF\\\\\\\"\""

Related: String#undump (inverse of String#dump).

VALUE
rb_str_dump(VALUE str)
{
    int encidx = rb_enc_get_index(str);
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_from_index(encidx);
    long len;
    const char *p, *pend;
    char *q, *qend;
    VALUE result;
    int u8 = (encidx == rb_utf8_encindex());
    static const char nonascii_suffix[] = ".dup.force_encoding(\"%s\")";

    len = 2;                    /* "" */
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        len += strlen(nonascii_suffix) - rb_strlen_lit("%s");
        len += strlen(enc->name);
    }

    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = p + RSTRING_LEN(str);
    while (p < pend) {
        int clen;
        unsigned char c = *p++;

        switch (c) {
          case '"':  case '\\':
          case '\n': case '\r':
          case '\t': case '\f':
          case '\013': case '\010': case '\007': case '\033':
            clen = 2;
            break;

          case '#':
            clen = IS_EVSTR(p, pend) ? 2 : 1;
            break;

          default:
            if (ISPRINT(c)) {
                clen = 1;
            }
            else {
                if (u8 && c > 0x7F) {   /* \u notation */
                    int n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p-1, pend, enc);
                    if (MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
                        unsigned int cc = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p-1, pend, enc);
                        if (cc <= 0xFFFF)
                            clen = 6;  /* \uXXXX */
                        else if (cc <= 0xFFFFF)
                            clen = 9;  /* \u{XXXXX} */
                        else
                            clen = 10; /* \u{XXXXXX} */
                        p += MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_LEN(n)-1;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                clen = 4;       /* \xNN */
            }
            break;
        }

        if (clen > LONG_MAX - len) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "string size too big");
        }
        len += clen;
    }

    result = rb_str_new(0, len);
    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = p + RSTRING_LEN(str);
    q = RSTRING_PTR(result); qend = q + len + 1;

    *q++ = '"';
    while (p < pend) {
        unsigned char c = *p++;

        if (c == '"' || c == '\\') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = c;
        }
        else if (c == '#') {
            if (IS_EVSTR(p, pend)) *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = '#';
        }
        else if (c == '\n') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'n';
        }
        else if (c == '\r') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'r';
        }
        else if (c == '\t') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 't';
        }
        else if (c == '\f') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'f';
        }
        else if (c == '\013') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'v';
        }
        else if (c == '\010') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'b';
        }
        else if (c == '\007') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'a';
        }
        else if (c == '\033') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'e';
        }
        else if (ISPRINT(c)) {
            *q++ = c;
        }
        else {
            *q++ = '\\';
            if (u8) {
                int n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p-1, pend, enc) - 1;
                if (MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
                    int cc = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p-1, pend, enc);
                    p += n;
                    if (cc <= 0xFFFF)
                        snprintf(q, qend-q, "u%04X", cc);    /* \uXXXX */
                    else
                        snprintf(q, qend-q, "u{%X}", cc);  /* \u{XXXXX} or \u{XXXXXX} */
                    q += strlen(q);
                    continue;
                }
            }
            snprintf(q, qend-q, "x%02X", c);
            q += 3;
        }
    }
    *q++ = '"';
    *q = '\0';
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        snprintf(q, qend-q, nonascii_suffix, enc->name);
        encidx = rb_ascii8bit_encindex();
    }
    /* result from dump is ASCII */
    rb_enc_associate_index(result, encidx);
    ENC_CODERANGE_SET(result, ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT);
    return result;
}
each_byte {|byte| ... } → self click to toggle source
each_byte → enumerator

Calls the given block with each successive byte from self; returns self:

'hello'.each_byte {|byte| print byte, ' ' }
print "\n"
'тест'.each_byte {|byte| print byte, ' ' }
print "\n"
'こんにちは'.each_byte {|byte| print byte, ' ' }
print "\n"

Output:

104 101 108 108 111
209 130 208 181 209 129 209 130
227 129 147 227 130 147 227 129 171 227 129 161 227 129 175

Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

static VALUE
rb_str_each_byte(VALUE str)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(str, 0, 0, rb_str_each_byte_size);
    return rb_str_enumerate_bytes(str, 0);
}
each_char {|c| ... } → self click to toggle source
each_char → enumerator

Calls the given block with each successive character from self; returns self:

'hello'.each_char {|char| print char, ' ' }
print "\n"
'тест'.each_char {|char| print char, ' ' }
print "\n"
'こんにちは'.each_char {|char| print char, ' ' }
print "\n"

Output:

h e l l o
т е с т
    

Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

static VALUE
rb_str_each_char(VALUE str)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(str, 0, 0, rb_str_each_char_size);
    return rb_str_enumerate_chars(str, 0);
}
each_codepoint {|integer| ... } → self click to toggle source
each_codepoint → enumerator

Calls the given block with each successive codepoint from self; each codepoint is the integer value for a character; returns self:

'hello'.each_codepoint {|codepoint| print codepoint, ' ' }
print "\n"
'тест'.each_codepoint {|codepoint| print codepoint, ' ' }
print "\n"
'こんにちは'.each_codepoint {|codepoint| print codepoint, ' ' }
print "\n"

Output:

104 101 108 108 111
1090 1077 1089 1090
12371 12435 12395 12385 12399

Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

static VALUE
rb_str_each_codepoint(VALUE str)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(str, 0, 0, rb_str_each_char_size);
    return rb_str_enumerate_codepoints(str, 0);
}
each_grapheme_cluster {|gc| ... } → self click to toggle source
each_grapheme_cluster → enumerator

Calls the given block with each successive grapheme cluster from self (see Unicode Grapheme Cluster Boundaries); returns self:

s = "\u0061\u0308-pqr-\u0062\u0308-xyz-\u0063\u0308" # => "ä-pqr-b̈-xyz-c̈"
s.each_grapheme_cluster {|gc| print gc, ' ' }

Output:

ä - p q r - b̈ - x y z - c̈

Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

static VALUE
rb_str_each_grapheme_cluster(VALUE str)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(str, 0, 0, rb_str_each_grapheme_cluster_size);
    return rb_str_enumerate_grapheme_clusters(str, 0);
}
each_line(line_sep = $/, chomp: false) {|substring| ... } → self click to toggle source
each_line(line_sep = $/, chomp: false) → enumerator

With a block given, forms the substrings (“lines”) that are the result of splitting self at each occurrence of the given line separator line_sep; passes each line to the block; returns self:

s = <<~EOT
This is the first line.
This is line two.

This is line four.
This is line five.
EOT

s.each_line {|line| p line }

Output:

"This is the first line.\n"
"This is line two.\n"
"\n"
"This is line four.\n"
"This is line five.\n"

With a different line_sep:

s.each_line(' is ') {|line| p line }

Output:

"This is "
"the first line.\nThis is "
"line two.\n\nThis is "
"line four.\nThis is "
"line five.\n"

With chomp as true, removes the trailing line_sep from each line:

s.each_line(chomp: true) {|line| p line }

Output:

"This is the first line."
"This is line two."
""
"This is line four."
"This is line five."

With an empty string as line_sep, forms and passes “paragraphs” by splitting at each occurrence of two or more newlines:

s.each_line('') {|line| p line }

Output:

"This is the first line.\nThis is line two.\n\n"
"This is line four.\nThis is line five.\n"

With no block given, returns an enumerator.

static VALUE
rb_str_each_line(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(str, argc, argv, 0);
    return rb_str_enumerate_lines(argc, argv, str, 0);
}
empty? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if the length of self is zero, false otherwise:

"hello".empty? # => false
" ".empty? # => false
"".empty? # => true
static VALUE
rb_str_empty(VALUE str)
{
    return RBOOL(RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0);
}
encode(dst_encoding = Encoding.default_internal, **enc_opts) → string click to toggle source
encode(dst_encoding, src_encoding, **enc_opts) → string

Returns a copy of self transcoded as determined by dst_encoding. By default, raises an exception if self contains an invalid byte or a character not defined in dst_encoding; that behavior may be modified by encoding options; see below.

With no arguments:

  • Uses the same encoding if Encoding.default_internal is nil (the default):

    Encoding.default_internal # => nil
    s = "Ruby\x99".force_encoding('Windows-1252')
    s.encoding                # => #<Encoding:Windows-1252>
    s.bytes                   # => [82, 117, 98, 121, 153]
    t = s.encode              # => "Ruby\x99"
    t.encoding                # => #<Encoding:Windows-1252>
    t.bytes                   # => [82, 117, 98, 121, 226, 132, 162]
    
  • Otherwise, uses the encoding Encoding.default_internal:

    Encoding.default_internal = 'UTF-8'
    t = s.encode              # => "Ruby™"
    t.encoding                # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
    

With only argument dst_encoding given, uses that encoding:

s = "Ruby\x99".force_encoding('Windows-1252')
s.encoding            # => #<Encoding:Windows-1252>
t = s.encode('UTF-8') # => "Ruby™"
t.encoding            # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>

With arguments dst_encoding and src_encoding given, interprets self using src_encoding, encodes the new string using dst_encoding:

s = "Ruby\x99"
t = s.encode('UTF-8', 'Windows-1252') # => "Ruby™"
t.encoding                            # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>

Optional keyword arguments enc_opts specify encoding options; see Encoding Options.

# File transcode.rdoc, line 48
def encode(dst_encoding = Encoding.default_internal, **enc_opts)
  # Pseudo code
  Primitive.str_encode(...)
end
encode!(dst_encoding = Encoding.default_internal, **enc_opts) → self click to toggle source
encode!(dst_encoding, src_encoding, **enc_opts) → self

Like encode, but applies encoding changes to self; returns self.

static VALUE
str_encode_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE newstr;
    int encidx;

    rb_check_frozen(str);

    newstr = str;
    encidx = str_transcode(argc, argv, &newstr);

    if (encidx < 0) return str;
    if (newstr == str) {
        rb_enc_associate_index(str, encidx);
        return str;
    }
    rb_str_shared_replace(str, newstr);
    return str_encode_associate(str, encidx);
}
encoding → encoding click to toggle source

Returns the Encoding object that represents the encoding of obj.

VALUE
rb_obj_encoding(VALUE obj)
{
    int idx = rb_enc_get_index(obj);
    if (idx < 0) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "unknown encoding");
    }
    return rb_enc_from_encoding_index(idx & ENC_INDEX_MASK);
}
end_with?(*strings) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self ends with any of the given strings.

Returns true if any given string matches the end, false otherwise:

'hello'.end_with?('ello')               #=> true
'hello'.end_with?('heaven', 'ello')     #=> true
'hello'.end_with?('heaven', 'paradise') #=> false
'тест'.end_with?('т')                   # => true
'こんにちは'.end_with?('は')              # => true

Related: String#start_with?.

static VALUE
rb_str_end_with(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    int i;
    char *p, *s, *e;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
        VALUE tmp = argv[i];
        long slen, tlen;
        StringValue(tmp);
        enc = rb_enc_check(str, tmp);
        if ((tlen = RSTRING_LEN(tmp)) == 0) return Qtrue;
        if ((slen = RSTRING_LEN(str)) < tlen) continue;
        p = RSTRING_PTR(str);
        e = p + slen;
        s = e - tlen;
        if (rb_enc_left_char_head(p, s, e, enc) != s)
            continue;
        if (memcmp(s, RSTRING_PTR(tmp), RSTRING_LEN(tmp)) == 0)
            return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
eql?(object) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if object has the same length and content; as self; false otherwise:

s = 'foo'
s.eql?('foo') # => true
s.eql?('food') # => false
s.eql?('FOO') # => false

Returns false if the two strings’ encodings are not compatible:

"\u{e4 f6 fc}".encode("ISO-8859-1").eql?("\u{c4 d6 dc}") # => false
MJIT_FUNC_EXPORTED VALUE
rb_str_eql(VALUE str1, VALUE str2)
{
    if (str1 == str2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(str2, T_STRING)) return Qfalse;
    return rb_str_eql_internal(str1, str2);
}
force_encoding(encoding) → self click to toggle source

Changes the encoding of self to encoding, which may be a string encoding name or an Encoding object; returns self:

s = 'łał'
s.bytes                   # => [197, 130, 97, 197, 130]
s.encoding                # => #<Encoding:UTF-8>
s.force_encoding('ascii') # => "\xC5\x82a\xC5\x82"
s.encoding                # => #<Encoding:US-ASCII>

Does not change the underlying bytes:

s.bytes                   # => [197, 130, 97, 197, 130]

Makes the change even if the given encoding is invalid for self (as is the change above):

s.valid_encoding?                 # => false
s.force_encoding(Encoding::UTF_8) # => "łał"
s.valid_encoding?                 # => true
static VALUE
rb_str_force_encoding(VALUE str, VALUE enc)
{
    str_modifiable(str);
    rb_enc_associate(str, rb_to_encoding(enc));
    ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
    return str;
}
freeze() click to toggle source
VALUE
rb_str_freeze(VALUE str)
{
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(str)) return str;
    rb_str_resize(str, RSTRING_LEN(str));
    return rb_obj_freeze(str);
}
getbyte(index) → integer or nil click to toggle source

Returns the byte at zero-based index as an integer, or nil if index is out of range:

s = 'abcde'   # => "abcde"
s.getbyte(0)  # => 97
s.getbyte(-1) # => 101
s.getbyte(5)  # => nil

Related: String#setbyte.

static VALUE
rb_str_getbyte(VALUE str, VALUE index)
{
    long pos = NUM2LONG(index);

    if (pos < 0)
        pos += RSTRING_LEN(str);
    if (pos < 0 ||  RSTRING_LEN(str) <= pos)
        return Qnil;

    return INT2FIX((unsigned char)RSTRING_PTR(str)[pos]);
}
grapheme_clusters → array_of_grapheme_clusters click to toggle source

Returns an array of the grapheme clusters in self (see Unicode Grapheme Cluster Boundaries):

s = "\u0061\u0308-pqr-\u0062\u0308-xyz-\u0063\u0308" # => "ä-pqr-b̈-xyz-c̈"
s.grapheme_clusters
# => ["ä", "-", "p", "q", "r", "-", "b̈", "-", "x", "y", "z", "-", "c̈"]
static VALUE
rb_str_grapheme_clusters(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE ary = WANTARRAY("grapheme_clusters", rb_str_strlen(str));
    return rb_str_enumerate_grapheme_clusters(str, ary);
}
gsub(pattern, replacement) → new_string click to toggle source
gsub(pattern) {|match| ... } → new_string
gsub(pattern) → enumerator

Returns a copy of self with all occurrences of the given pattern replaced.

See Substitution Methods.

Returns an Enumerator if no replacement and no block given.

Related: String#sub, String#sub!, String#gsub!.

static VALUE
rb_str_gsub(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return str_gsub(argc, argv, str, 0);
}
gsub!(pattern, replacement) → self or nil click to toggle source
gsub!(pattern) {|match| ... } → self or nil
gsub!(pattern) → an_enumerator

Performs the specified substring replacement(s) on self; returns self if any replacement occurred, nil otherwise.

See Substitution Methods.

Returns an Enumerator if no replacement and no block given.

Related: String#sub, String#gsub, String#sub!.

static VALUE
rb_str_gsub_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    return str_gsub(argc, argv, str, 1);
}
hash → integer click to toggle source

Returns the integer hash value for self. The value is based on the length, content and encoding of self.

Related: Object#hash.

static VALUE
rb_str_hash_m(VALUE str)
{
    st_index_t hval = rb_str_hash(str);
    return ST2FIX(hval);
}
hex → integer click to toggle source

Interprets the leading substring of self as a string of hexadecimal digits (with an optional sign and an optional 0x) and returns the corresponding number; returns zero if there is no such leading substring:

'0x0a'.hex        # => 10
'-1234'.hex       # => -4660
'0'.hex           # => 0
'non-numeric'.hex # => 0

Related: String#oct.

static VALUE
rb_str_hex(VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_to_inum(str, 16, FALSE);
}
include? other_string → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if self contains other_string, false otherwise:

s = 'foo'
s.include?('f')    # => true
s.include?('fo')   # => true
s.include?('food') # => false
VALUE
rb_str_include(VALUE str, VALUE arg)
{
    long i;

    StringValue(arg);
    i = rb_str_index(str, arg, 0);

    return RBOOL(i != -1);
}
index(substring, offset = 0) → integer or nil click to toggle source
index(regexp, offset = 0) → integer or nil

Returns the integer index of the first match for the given argument, or nil if none found; the search of self is forward, and begins at position offset (in characters).

With string argument substring, returns the index of the first matching substring in self:

'foo'.index('f')         # => 0
'foo'.index('o')         # => 1
'foo'.index('oo')        # => 1
'foo'.index('ooo')       # => nil
'тест'.index('с')        # => 2
'こんにちは'.index('ち')   # => 3

With Regexp argument regexp, returns the index of the first match in self:

'foo'.index(/o./) # => 1
'foo'.index(/.o/) # => 0

With positive integer offset, begins the search at position offset:

'foo'.index('o', 1)        # => 1
'foo'.index('o', 2)        # => 2
'foo'.index('o', 3)        # => nil
'тест'.index('с', 1)       # => 2
'こんにちは'.index('ち', 2)  # => 3

With negative integer offset, selects the search position by counting backward from the end of self:

'foo'.index('o', -1)  # => 2
'foo'.index('o', -2)  # => 1
'foo'.index('o', -3)  # => 1
'foo'.index('o', -4)  # => nil
'foo'.index(/o./, -2) # => 1
'foo'.index(/.o/, -2) # => 1

Related: String#rindex.

static VALUE
rb_str_index_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE sub;
    VALUE initpos;
    long pos;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &sub, &initpos) == 2) {
        pos = NUM2LONG(initpos);
    }
    else {
        pos = 0;
    }
    if (pos < 0) {
        pos += str_strlen(str, NULL);
        if (pos < 0) {
            if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
                rb_backref_set(Qnil);
            }
            return Qnil;
        }
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (pos > str_strlen(str, NULL))
            return Qnil;
        pos = str_offset(RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_END(str), pos,
                         rb_enc_check(str, sub), single_byte_optimizable(str));

        if (rb_reg_search(sub, str, pos, 0) < 0) {
            return Qnil;
        }
        else {
            VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
            struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
            pos = rb_str_sublen(str, BEG(0));
            return LONG2NUM(pos);
        }
    }
    else {
        StringValue(sub);
        pos = rb_str_index(str, sub, pos);
        pos = rb_str_sublen(str, pos);
    }

    if (pos == -1) return Qnil;
    return LONG2NUM(pos);
}
initialize_copy(other_string) -> self click to toggle source

Replaces the contents of self with the contents of other_string:

s = 'foo'        # => "foo"
s.replace('bar') # => "bar"
VALUE
rb_str_replace(VALUE str, VALUE str2)
{
    str_modifiable(str);
    if (str == str2) return str;

    StringValue(str2);
    str_discard(str);
    return str_replace(str, str2);
}
Also aliased as: replace
insert(index, other_string) → self click to toggle source

Inserts the given other_string into self; returns self.

If the Integer index is positive, inserts other_string at offset index:

'foo'.insert(1, 'bar') # => "fbaroo"

If the Integer index is negative, counts backward from the end of self and inserts other_string at offset index+1 (that is, after self[index]):

'foo'.insert(-2, 'bar') # => "fobaro"
static VALUE
rb_str_insert(VALUE str, VALUE idx, VALUE str2)
{
    long pos = NUM2LONG(idx);

    if (pos == -1) {
        return rb_str_append(str, str2);
    }
    else if (pos < 0) {
        pos++;
    }
    rb_str_splice(str, pos, 0, str2);
    return str;
}
inspect → string click to toggle source

Returns a printable version of self, enclosed in double-quotes, and with special characters escaped:

s = "foo\tbar\tbaz\n"
s.inspect
# => "\"foo\\tbar\\tbaz\\n\""
VALUE
rb_str_inspect(VALUE str)
{
    int encidx = ENCODING_GET(str);
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_from_index(encidx);
    const char *p, *pend, *prev;
    char buf[CHAR_ESC_LEN + 1];
    VALUE result = rb_str_buf_new(0);
    rb_encoding *resenc = rb_default_internal_encoding();
    int unicode_p = rb_enc_unicode_p(enc);
    int asciicompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);

    if (resenc == NULL) resenc = rb_default_external_encoding();
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(resenc)) resenc = rb_usascii_encoding();
    rb_enc_associate(result, resenc);
    str_buf_cat2(result, "\"");

    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = RSTRING_END(str);
    prev = p;
    while (p < pend) {
        unsigned int c, cc;
        int n;

        n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p, pend, enc);
        if (!MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
            if (p > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - prev);
            n = rb_enc_mbminlen(enc);
            if (pend < p + n)
                n = (int)(pend - p);
            while (n--) {
                snprintf(buf, CHAR_ESC_LEN, "\\x%02X", *p & 0377);
                str_buf_cat(result, buf, strlen(buf));
                prev = ++p;
            }
            continue;
        }
        n = MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_LEN(n);
        c = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p, pend, enc);
        p += n;
        if ((asciicompat || unicode_p) &&
          (c == '"'|| c == '\\' ||
            (c == '#' &&
             p < pend &&
             MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p,pend,enc)) &&
             (cc = rb_enc_codepoint(p,pend,enc),
              (cc == '$' || cc == '@' || cc == '{'))))) {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            str_buf_cat2(result, "\\");
            if (asciicompat || enc == resenc) {
                prev = p - n;
                continue;
            }
        }
        switch (c) {
          case '\n': cc = 'n'; break;
          case '\r': cc = 'r'; break;
          case '\t': cc = 't'; break;
          case '\f': cc = 'f'; break;
          case '\013': cc = 'v'; break;
          case '\010': cc = 'b'; break;
          case '\007': cc = 'a'; break;
          case 033: cc = 'e'; break;
          default: cc = 0; break;
        }
        if (cc) {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            buf[0] = '\\';
            buf[1] = (char)cc;
            str_buf_cat(result, buf, 2);
            prev = p;
            continue;
        }
        /* The special casing of 0x85 (NEXT_LINE) here is because
         * Oniguruma historically treats it as printable, but it
         * doesn't match the print POSIX bracket class or character
         * property in regexps.
         *
         * See Ruby Bug #16842 for details:
         * https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16842
         */
        if ((enc == resenc && rb_enc_isprint(c, enc) && c != 0x85) ||
            (asciicompat && rb_enc_isascii(c, enc) && ISPRINT(c))) {
            continue;
        }
        else {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            rb_str_buf_cat_escaped_char(result, c, unicode_p);
            prev = p;
            continue;
        }
    }
    if (p > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - prev);
    str_buf_cat2(result, "\"");

    return result;
}
intern → symbol click to toggle source

Returns the Symbol corresponding to str, creating the symbol if it did not previously exist. See Symbol#id2name.

"Koala".intern         #=> :Koala
s = 'cat'.to_sym       #=> :cat
s == :cat              #=> true
s = '@cat'.to_sym      #=> :@cat
s == :@cat             #=> true

This can also be used to create symbols that cannot be represented using the :xxx notation.

'cat and dog'.to_sym   #=> :"cat and dog"
VALUE
rb_str_intern(VALUE str)
{
    VALUE sym;
#if USE_SYMBOL_GC
    rb_encoding *enc, *ascii;
    int type;
#else
    ID id;
#endif
    GLOBAL_SYMBOLS_ENTER(symbols);
    {
        sym = lookup_str_sym_with_lock(symbols, str);

        if (sym) {
            // ok
        }
        else {
#if USE_SYMBOL_GC
            enc = rb_enc_get(str);
            ascii = rb_usascii_encoding();
            if (enc != ascii && sym_check_asciionly(str)) {
                str = rb_str_dup(str);
                rb_enc_associate(str, ascii);
                OBJ_FREEZE(str);
                enc = ascii;
            }
            else {
                str = rb_str_dup(str);
                OBJ_FREEZE(str);
            }
            str = rb_fstring(str);
            type = rb_str_symname_type(str, IDSET_ATTRSET_FOR_INTERN);
            if (type < 0) type = ID_JUNK;
            sym = dsymbol_alloc(symbols, rb_cSymbol, str, enc, type);
#else
            id = intern_str(str, 0);
            sym = ID2SYM(id);
#endif
        }
    }
    GLOBAL_SYMBOLS_LEAVE();
    return sym;
}
Also aliased as: to_sym
String#iseuc → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self‘s encoding is EUC-JP or not.

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 264
def iseuc;    Kconv.iseuc(self) end
String#isjis → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self‘s encoding is ISO-2022-JP or not.

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 276
def isjis;    Kconv.isjis(self) end
String#issjis → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self‘s encoding is Shift_JIS or not.

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 270
def issjis;   Kconv.issjis(self) end
String#isutf8 → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self‘s encoding is UTF-8 or not.

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 282
def isutf8;   Kconv.isutf8(self) end
String#kconv(to_enc, from_enc) click to toggle source

Convert self to to_enc. to_enc and from_enc are given as constants of Kconv or Encoding objects.

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 205
def kconv(to_enc, from_enc=nil)
  from_enc = self.encoding if !from_enc && self.encoding != Encoding.list[0]
  Kconv::kconv(self, to_enc, from_enc)
end
length → integer click to toggle source

Returns the count of characters (not bytes) in self:

'foo'.length        # => 3
'тест'.length       # => 4
'こんにちは'.length   # => 5

Contrast with String#bytesize:

'foo'.bytesize        # => 3
'тест'.bytesize       # => 8
'こんにちは'.bytesize   # => 15

String#size is an alias for String#length.

VALUE
rb_str_length(VALUE str)
{
    return LONG2NUM(str_strlen(str, NULL));
}
Also aliased as: size
lines(Line_sep = $/, chomp: false) → array_of_strings click to toggle source

Forms substrings (“lines”) of self according to the given arguments (see String#each_line for details); returns the lines in an array.

static VALUE
rb_str_lines(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE ary = WANTARRAY("lines", 0);
    return rb_str_enumerate_lines(argc, argv, str, ary);
}
ljust(size, pad_string = ' ') → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a left-justified copy of self.

If integer argument size is greater than the size (in characters) of self, returns a new string of length size that is a copy of self, left justified and padded on the right with pad_string:

'hello'.ljust(10)       # => "hello     "
'  hello'.ljust(10)     # => "  hello   "
'hello'.ljust(10, 'ab') # => "helloababa"
'тест'.ljust(10)        # => "тест      "
'こんにちは'.ljust(10)    # => "こんにちは     "

If size is not greater than the size of self, returns a copy of self:

'hello'.ljust(5)  # => "hello"
'hello'.ljust(1)  # => "hello"

Related: String#rjust, String#center.

static VALUE
rb_str_ljust(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_justify(argc, argv, str, 'l');
}
lstrip → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with leading whitespace removed; see Whitespace in Strings:

whitespace = "\x00\t\n\v\f\r "
s = whitespace + 'abc' + whitespace
s        # => "\u0000\t\n\v\f\r abc\u0000\t\n\v\f\r "
s.lstrip # => "abc\u0000\t\n\v\f\r "

Related: String#rstrip, String#strip.

static VALUE
rb_str_lstrip(VALUE str)
{
    char *start;
    long len, loffset;
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, len);
    loffset = lstrip_offset(str, start, start+len, STR_ENC_GET(str));
    if (loffset <= 0) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    return rb_str_subseq(str, loffset, len - loffset);
}
lstrip! → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#lstrip, except that any modifications are made in self; returns self if any modification are made, nil otherwise.

Related: String#rstrip!, String#strip!.

static VALUE
rb_str_lstrip_bang(VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    char *start, *s;
    long olen, loffset;

    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, olen);
    loffset = lstrip_offset(str, start, start+olen, enc);
    if (loffset > 0) {
        long len = olen-loffset;
        s = start + loffset;
        memmove(start, s, len);
        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(start+len, rb_enc_mbminlen(enc));
        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
match(pattern, offset = 0) → matchdata or nil click to toggle source
match(pattern, offset = 0) {|matchdata| ... } → object

Returns a Matchdata object (or nil) based on self and the given pattern.

Note: also updates Special global variables at Regexp.

  • Computes regexp by converting pattern (if not already a Regexp).

    regexp = Regexp.new(pattern)
    
  • Computes matchdata, which will be either a MatchData object or nil (see Regexp#match):

    matchdata = <tt>regexp.match(self)

With no block given, returns the computed matchdata:

'foo'.match('f') # => #<MatchData "f">
'foo'.match('o') # => #<MatchData "o">
'foo'.match('x') # => nil

If Integer argument offset is given, the search begins at index offset:

'foo'.match('f', 1) # => nil
'foo'.match('o', 1) # => #<MatchData "o">

With a block given, calls the block with the computed matchdata and returns the block’s return value:

'foo'.match(/o/) {|matchdata| matchdata } # => #<MatchData "o">
'foo'.match(/x/) {|matchdata| matchdata } # => nil
'foo'.match(/f/, 1) {|matchdata| matchdata } # => nil
static VALUE
rb_str_match_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE re, result;
    if (argc < 1)
        rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    re = argv[0];
    argv[0] = str;
    result = rb_funcallv(get_pat(re), rb_intern("match"), argc, argv);
    if (!NIL_P(result) && rb_block_given_p()) {
        return rb_yield(result);
    }
    return result;
}
match?(pattern, offset = 0) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true or false based on whether a match is found for self and pattern.

Note: does not update Special global variables at Regexp.

Computes regexp by converting pattern (if not already a Regexp).

regexp = Regexp.new(pattern)

Returns true if self+.match(regexp) returns a Matchdata object, false otherwise:

'foo'.match?(/o/) # => true
'foo'.match?('o') # => true
'foo'.match?(/x/) # => false

If Integer argument offset is given, the search begins at index offset:

'foo'.match?('f', 1) # => false
'foo'.match?('o', 1) # => true
static VALUE
rb_str_match_m_p(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE re;
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    re = get_pat(argv[0]);
    return rb_reg_match_p(re, str, argc > 1 ? NUM2LONG(argv[1]) : 0);
}
next()

Returns the successor to self. The successor is calculated by incrementing characters.

The first character to be incremented is the rightmost alphanumeric: or, if no alphanumerics, the rightmost character:

'THX1138'.succ # => "THX1139"
'<<koala>>'.succ # => "<<koalb>>"
'***'.succ # => '**+'

The successor to a digit is another digit, “carrying” to the next-left character for a “rollover” from 9 to 0, and prepending another digit if necessary:

'00'.succ # => "01"
'09'.succ # => "10"
'99'.succ # => "100"

The successor to a letter is another letter of the same case, carrying to the next-left character for a rollover, and prepending another same-case letter if necessary:

'aa'.succ # => "ab"
'az'.succ # => "ba"
'zz'.succ # => "aaa"
'AA'.succ # => "AB"
'AZ'.succ # => "BA"
'ZZ'.succ # => "AAA"

The successor to a non-alphanumeric character is the next character in the underlying character set’s collating sequence, carrying to the next-left character for a rollover, and prepending another character if necessary:

s = 0.chr * 3
s # => "\x00\x00\x00"
s.succ # => "\x00\x00\x01"
s = 255.chr * 3
s # => "\xFF\xFF\xFF"
s.succ # => "\x01\x00\x00\x00"

Carrying can occur between and among mixtures of alphanumeric characters:

s = 'zz99zz99'
s.succ # => "aaa00aa00"
s = '99zz99zz'
s.succ # => "100aa00aa"

The successor to an empty String is a new empty String:

''.succ # => ""

String#next is an alias for String#succ.

Alias for: succ
next!()

Equivalent to String#succ, but modifies self in place; returns self.

String#next! is an alias for String#succ!.

Alias for: succ!
oct → integer click to toggle source

Interprets the leading substring of self as a string of octal digits (with an optional sign) and returns the corresponding number; returns zero if there is no such leading substring:

'123'.oct             # => 83
'-377'.oct            # => -255
'0377non-numeric'.oct # => 255
'non-numeric'.oct     # => 0

If self starts with 0, radix indicators are honored; see Kernel#Integer.

Related: String#hex.

static VALUE
rb_str_oct(VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_to_inum(str, -8, FALSE);
}
ord → integer click to toggle source

Returns the integer ordinal of the first character of self:

'h'.ord         # => 104
'hello'.ord     # => 104
'тест'.ord      # => 1090
'こんにちは'.ord  # => 12371
static VALUE
rb_str_ord(VALUE s)
{
    unsigned int c;

    c = rb_enc_codepoint(RSTRING_PTR(s), RSTRING_END(s), STR_ENC_GET(s));
    return UINT2NUM(c);
}
partition(string_or_regexp) → [head, match, tail] click to toggle source

Returns a 3-element array of substrings of self.

Matches a pattern against self, scanning from the beginning. The pattern is:

  • string_or_regexp itself, if it is a Regexp.

  • Regexp.quote(string_or_regexp), if string_or_regexp is a string.

If the pattern is matched, returns pre-match, first-match, post-match:

'hello'.partition('l')      # => ["he", "l", "lo"]
'hello'.partition('ll')     # => ["he", "ll", "o"]
'hello'.partition('h')      # => ["", "h", "ello"]
'hello'.partition('o')      # => ["hell", "o", ""]
'hello'.partition(/l+/)     #=> ["he", "ll", "o"]
'hello'.partition('')       # => ["", "", "hello"]
'тест'.partition('т')       # => ["", "т", "ест"]
'こんにちは'.partition('に')  # => ["こん", "に", "ちは"]

If the pattern is not matched, returns a copy of self and two empty strings:

'hello'.partition('x') # => ["hello", "", ""]

Related: String#rpartition, String#split.

static VALUE
rb_str_partition(VALUE str, VALUE sep)
{
    long pos;

    sep = get_pat_quoted(sep, 0);
    if (RB_TYPE_P(sep, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (rb_reg_search(sep, str, 0, 0) < 0) {
            goto failed;
        }
        VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
        struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

        pos = BEG(0);
        sep = rb_str_subseq(str, pos, END(0) - pos);
    }
    else {
        pos = rb_str_index(str, sep, 0);
        if (pos < 0) goto failed;
    }
    return rb_ary_new3(3, rb_str_subseq(str, 0, pos),
                          sep,
                          rb_str_subseq(str, pos+RSTRING_LEN(sep),
                                             RSTRING_LEN(str)-pos-RSTRING_LEN(sep)));

  failed:
    return rb_ary_new3(3, str_duplicate(rb_cString, str), str_new_empty_String(str), str_new_empty_String(str));
}
prepend(*other_strings) → string click to toggle source

Prepends each string in other_strings to self and returns self:

s = 'foo'
s.prepend('bar', 'baz') # => "barbazfoo"
s                       # => "barbazfoo"

Related: String#concat.

static VALUE
rb_str_prepend_multi(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str_modifiable(str);

    if (argc == 1) {
        rb_str_update(str, 0L, 0L, argv[0]);
    }
    else if (argc > 1) {
        int i;
        VALUE arg_str = rb_str_tmp_new(0);
        rb_enc_copy(arg_str, str);
        for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
            rb_str_append(arg_str, argv[i]);
        }
        rb_str_update(str, 0L, 0L, arg_str);
    }

    return str;
}
replace(other_string) → self

Replaces the contents of self with the contents of other_string:

s = 'foo'        # => "foo"
s.replace('bar') # => "bar"
Alias for: initialize_copy
reverse → string click to toggle source

Returns a new string with the characters from self in reverse order.

'stressed'.reverse # => "desserts"
static VALUE
rb_str_reverse(VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE rev;
    char *s, *e, *p;
    int cr;

    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) <= 1) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    rev = rb_str_new(0, RSTRING_LEN(str));
    s = RSTRING_PTR(str); e = RSTRING_END(str);
    p = RSTRING_END(rev);
    cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str);

    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) > 1) {
        if (single_byte_optimizable(str)) {
            while (s < e) {
                *--p = *s++;
            }
        }
        else if (cr == ENC_CODERANGE_VALID) {
            while (s < e) {
                int clen = rb_enc_fast_mbclen(s, e, enc);

                p -= clen;
                memcpy(p, s, clen);
                s += clen;
            }
        }
        else {
            cr = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc) ?
                ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT : ENC_CODERANGE_VALID;
            while (s < e) {
                int clen = rb_enc_mbclen(s, e, enc);

                if (clen > 1 || (*s & 0x80)) cr = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN;
                p -= clen;
                memcpy(p, s, clen);
                s += clen;
            }
        }
    }
    STR_SET_LEN(rev, RSTRING_LEN(str));
    str_enc_copy(rev, str);
    ENC_CODERANGE_SET(rev, cr);

    return rev;
}
reverse! → self click to toggle source

Returns self with its characters reversed:

s = 'stressed'
s.reverse! # => "desserts"
s          # => "desserts"
static VALUE
rb_str_reverse_bang(VALUE str)
{
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) > 1) {
        if (single_byte_optimizable(str)) {
            char *s, *e, c;

            str_modify_keep_cr(str);
            s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
            e = RSTRING_END(str) - 1;
            while (s < e) {
                c = *s;
                *s++ = *e;
                *e-- = c;
            }
        }
        else {
            str_shared_replace(str, rb_str_reverse(str));
        }
    }
    else {
        str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    }
    return str;
}
rindex(substring, offset = self.length) → integer or nil click to toggle source
rindex(regexp, offset = self.length) → integer or nil

Returns the Integer index of the last occurrence of the given substring, or nil if none found:

'foo'.rindex('f') # => 0
'foo'.rindex('o') # => 2
'foo'.rindex('oo') # => 1
'foo'.rindex('ooo') # => nil

Returns the Integer index of the last match for the given Regexp regexp, or nil if none found:

'foo'.rindex(/f/) # => 0
'foo'.rindex(/o/) # => 2
'foo'.rindex(/oo/) # => 1
'foo'.rindex(/ooo/) # => nil

The last match means starting at the possible last position, not the last of longest matches.

'foo'.rindex(/o+/) # => 2
$~ #=> #<MatchData "o">

To get the last longest match, needs to combine with negative lookbehind.

'foo'.rindex(/(?<!o)o+/) # => 1
$~ #=> #<MatchData "oo">

Or String#index with negative lookforward.

'foo'.index(/o+(?!.*o)/) # => 1
$~ #=> #<MatchData "oo">

Integer argument offset, if given and non-negative, specifies the maximum starting position in the

string to _end_ the search:

 'foo'.rindex('o', 0) # => nil
 'foo'.rindex('o', 1) # => 1
 'foo'.rindex('o', 2) # => 2
 'foo'.rindex('o', 3) # => 2

If offset is a negative Integer, the maximum starting position in the string to end the search is the sum of the string’s length and offset:

'foo'.rindex('o', -1) # => 2
'foo'.rindex('o', -2) # => 1
'foo'.rindex('o', -3) # => nil
'foo'.rindex('o', -4) # => nil

Related: String#index.

static VALUE
rb_str_rindex_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE sub;
    VALUE vpos;
    rb_encoding *enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    long pos, len = str_strlen(str, enc); /* str's enc */

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &sub, &vpos) == 2) {
        pos = NUM2LONG(vpos);
        if (pos < 0) {
            pos += len;
            if (pos < 0) {
                if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
                    rb_backref_set(Qnil);
                }
                return Qnil;
            }
        }
        if (pos > len) pos = len;
    }
    else {
        pos = len;
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(sub, T_REGEXP)) {
        /* enc = rb_get_check(str, sub); */
        pos = str_offset(RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_END(str), pos,
                         enc, single_byte_optimizable(str));

        if (rb_reg_search(sub, str, pos, 1) >= 0) {
            VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
            struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
            pos = rb_str_sublen(str, BEG(0));
            return LONG2NUM(pos);
        }
    }
    else {
        StringValue(sub);
        pos = rb_str_rindex(str, sub, pos);
        if (pos >= 0) return LONG2NUM(pos);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
rjust(size, pad_string = ' ') → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a right-justified copy of self.

If integer argument size is greater than the size (in characters) of self, returns a new string of length size that is a copy of self, right justified and padded on the left with pad_string:

'hello'.rjust(10)       # => "     hello"
'hello  '.rjust(10)     # => "   hello  "
'hello'.rjust(10, 'ab') # => "ababahello"
'тест'.rjust(10)        # => "      тест"
'こんにちは'.rjust(10)    # => "     こんにちは"

If size is not greater than the size of self, returns a copy of self:

'hello'.rjust(5, 'ab')  # => "hello"
'hello'.rjust(1, 'ab')  # => "hello"

Related: String#ljust, String#center.

static VALUE
rb_str_rjust(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_justify(argc, argv, str, 'r');
}
rpartition(sep) → [head, match, tail] click to toggle source

Returns a 3-element array of substrings of self.

Matches a pattern against self, scanning backwards from the end. The pattern is:

  • string_or_regexp itself, if it is a Regexp.

  • Regexp.quote(string_or_regexp), if string_or_regexp is a string.

If the pattern is matched, returns pre-match, last-match, post-match:

'hello'.rpartition('l')      # => ["hel", "l", "o"]
'hello'.rpartition('ll')     # => ["he", "ll", "o"]
'hello'.rpartition('h')      # => ["", "h", "ello"]
'hello'.rpartition('o')      # => ["hell", "o", ""]
'hello'.rpartition(/l+/)     # => ["hel", "l", "o"]
'hello'.rpartition('')       # => ["hello", "", ""]
'тест'.rpartition('т')       # => ["тес", "т", ""]
'こんにちは'.rpartition('に')  # => ["こん", "に", "ちは"]

If the pattern is not matched, returns two empty strings and a copy of self:

'hello'.rpartition('x') # => ["", "", "hello"]

Related: String#partition, String#split.

static VALUE
rb_str_rpartition(VALUE str, VALUE sep)
{
    long pos = RSTRING_LEN(str);

    sep = get_pat_quoted(sep, 0);
    if (RB_TYPE_P(sep, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (rb_reg_search(sep, str, pos, 1) < 0) {
            goto failed;
        }
        VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
        struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);

        pos = BEG(0);
        sep = rb_str_subseq(str, pos, END(0) - pos);
    }
    else {
        pos = rb_str_sublen(str, pos);
        pos = rb_str_rindex(str, sep, pos);
        if (pos < 0) {
            goto failed;
        }
        pos = rb_str_offset(str, pos);
    }

    return rb_ary_new3(3, rb_str_subseq(str, 0, pos),
                          sep,
                          rb_str_subseq(str, pos+RSTRING_LEN(sep),
                                        RSTRING_LEN(str)-pos-RSTRING_LEN(sep)));
  failed:
    return rb_ary_new3(3, str_new_empty_String(str), str_new_empty_String(str), str_duplicate(rb_cString, str));
}
rstrip → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of the receiver with trailing whitespace removed; see Whitespace in Strings:

whitespace = "\x00\t\n\v\f\r "
s = whitespace + 'abc' + whitespace
s        # => "\u0000\t\n\v\f\r abc\u0000\t\n\v\f\r "
s.rstrip # => "\u0000\t\n\v\f\r abc"

Related: String#lstrip, String#strip.

static VALUE
rb_str_rstrip(VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    char *start;
    long olen, roffset;

    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, olen);
    roffset = rstrip_offset(str, start, start+olen, enc);

    if (roffset <= 0) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    return rb_str_subseq(str, 0, olen-roffset);
}
rstrip! → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#rstrip, except that any modifications are made in self; returns self if any modification are made, nil otherwise.

Related: String#lstrip!, String#strip!.

static VALUE
rb_str_rstrip_bang(VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    char *start;
    long olen, roffset;

    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, olen);
    roffset = rstrip_offset(str, start, start+olen, enc);
    if (roffset > 0) {
        long len = olen - roffset;

        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(start+len, rb_enc_mbminlen(enc));
        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
scan(string_or_regexp) → array click to toggle source
scan(string_or_regexp) {|matches| ... } → self

Matches a pattern against self; the pattern is:

  • string_or_regexp itself, if it is a Regexp.

  • Regexp.quote(string_or_regexp), if string_or_regexp is a string.

Iterates through self, generating a collection of matching results:

  • If the pattern contains no groups, each result is the matched string, $&.

  • If the pattern contains groups, each result is an array containing one entry per group.

With no block given, returns an array of the results:

s = 'cruel world'
s.scan(/\w+/)      # => ["cruel", "world"]
s.scan(/.../)      # => ["cru", "el ", "wor"]
s.scan(/(...)/)    # => [["cru"], ["el "], ["wor"]]
s.scan(/(..)(..)/) # => [["cr", "ue"], ["l ", "wo"]]

With a block given, calls the block with each result; returns self:

s.scan(/\w+/) {|w| print "<<#{w}>> " }
print "\n"
s.scan(/(.)(.)/) {|x,y| print y, x }
print "\n"

Output:

<<cruel>> <<world>>
rceu lowlr
static VALUE
rb_str_scan(VALUE str, VALUE pat)
{
    VALUE result;
    long start = 0;
    long last = -1, prev = 0;
    char *p = RSTRING_PTR(str); long len = RSTRING_LEN(str);

    pat = get_pat_quoted(pat, 1);
    mustnot_broken(str);
    if (!rb_block_given_p()) {
        VALUE ary = rb_ary_new();

        while (!NIL_P(result = scan_once(str, pat, &start, 0))) {
            last = prev;
            prev = start;
            rb_ary_push(ary, result);
        }
        if (last >= 0) rb_pat_search(pat, str, last, 1);
        else rb_backref_set(Qnil);
        return ary;
    }

    while (!NIL_P(result = scan_once(str, pat, &start, 1))) {
        last = prev;
        prev = start;
        rb_yield(result);
        str_mod_check(str, p, len);
    }
    if (last >= 0) rb_pat_search(pat, str, last, 1);
    return str;
}
scrub(replacement_string = default_replacement) → new_string click to toggle source
scrub{|bytes| ... } → new_string

Returns a copy of self with each invalid byte sequence replaced by the given replacement_string.

With no block given and no argument, replaces each invalid sequence with the default replacement string ("�" for a Unicode encoding, '?' otherwise):

s = "foo\x81\x81bar"
s.scrub # => "foo��bar"

With no block given and argument replacement_string given, replaces each invalid sequence with that string:

"foo\x81\x81bar".scrub('xyzzy') # => "fooxyzzyxyzzybar"

With a block given, replaces each invalid sequence with the value of the block:

"foo\x81\x81bar".scrub {|bytes| p bytes; 'XYZZY' }
# => "fooXYZZYXYZZYbar"

Output:

"\x81"
"\x81"
static VALUE
str_scrub(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE repl = argc ? (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1), argv[0]) : Qnil;
    VALUE new = rb_str_scrub(str, repl);
    return NIL_P(new) ? str_duplicate(rb_cString, str): new;
}
scrub! → self click to toggle source
scrub!(replacement_string = default_replacement) → self
scrub!{|bytes| ... } → self

Like String#scrub, except that any replacements are made in self.

static VALUE
str_scrub_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE repl = argc ? (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1), argv[0]) : Qnil;
    VALUE new = rb_str_scrub(str, repl);
    if (!NIL_P(new)) rb_str_replace(str, new);
    return str;
}
setbyte(index, integer) → integer click to toggle source

Sets the byte at zero-based index to integer; returns integer:

s = 'abcde'      # => "abcde"
s.setbyte(0, 98) # => 98
s                # => "bbcde"

Related: String#getbyte.

static VALUE
rb_str_setbyte(VALUE str, VALUE index, VALUE value)
{
    long pos = NUM2LONG(index);
    long len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
    char *ptr, *head, *left = 0;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    int cr = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN, width, nlen;

    if (pos < -len || len <= pos)
        rb_raise(rb_eIndexError, "index %ld out of string", pos);
    if (pos < 0)
        pos += len;

    VALUE v = rb_to_int(value);
    VALUE w = rb_int_and(v, INT2FIX(0xff));
    char byte = (char)(NUM2INT(w) & 0xFF);

    if (!str_independent(str))
        str_make_independent(str);
    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    head = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    ptr = &head[pos];
    if (!STR_EMBED_P(str)) {
        cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str);
        switch (cr) {
          case ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT:
            left = ptr;
            *ptr = byte;
            if (ISASCII(byte)) goto end;
            nlen = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(left, head+len, enc);
            if (!MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(nlen))
                ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN);
            else
                ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, ENC_CODERANGE_VALID);
            goto end;
          case ENC_CODERANGE_VALID:
            left = rb_enc_left_char_head(head, ptr, head+len, enc);
            width = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(left, head+len, enc);
            *ptr = byte;
            nlen = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(left, head+len, enc);
            if (!MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(nlen))
                ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN);
            else if (MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_LEN(nlen) != width || ISASCII(byte))
                ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
            goto end;
        }
    }
    ENC_CODERANGE_CLEAR(str);
    *ptr = byte;

  end:
    return value;
}
shellescape → string click to toggle source

Escapes str so that it can be safely used in a Bourne shell command line.

See Shellwords.shellescape for details.

# File lib/shellwords.rb, line 224
def shellescape
  Shellwords.escape(self)
end
shellsplit → array click to toggle source

Splits str into an array of tokens in the same way the UNIX Bourne shell does.

See Shellwords.shellsplit for details.

# File lib/shellwords.rb, line 213
def shellsplit
  Shellwords.split(self)
end
size()

Returns the count of characters (not bytes) in self:

'foo'.length        # => 3
'тест'.length       # => 4
'こんにちは'.length   # => 5

Contrast with String#bytesize:

'foo'.bytesize        # => 3
'тест'.bytesize       # => 8
'こんにちは'.bytesize   # => 15

String#size is an alias for String#length.

Alias for: length
slice(*args)

Returns the substring of self specified by the arguments. See examples at String Slices.

Alias for: []
slice!(index) → new_string or nil click to toggle source
slice!(start, length) → new_string or nil
slice!(range) → new_string or nil
slice!(regexp, capture = 0) → new_string or nil
slice!(substring) → new_string or nil

Removes and returns the substring of self specified by the arguments. See String Slices.

A few examples:

string = "This is a string"
string.slice!(2)        #=> "i"
string.slice!(3..6)     #=> " is "
string.slice!(/s.*t/)   #=> "sa st"
string.slice!("r")      #=> "r"
string                  #=> "Thing"
static VALUE
rb_str_slice_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE result = Qnil;
    VALUE indx;
    long beg, len = 1;
    char *p;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    indx = argv[0];
    if (RB_TYPE_P(indx, T_REGEXP)) {
        if (rb_reg_search(indx, str, 0, 0) < 0) return Qnil;
        VALUE match = rb_backref_get();
        struct re_registers *regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
        int nth = 0;
        if (argc > 1 && (nth = rb_reg_backref_number(match, argv[1])) < 0) {
            if ((nth += regs->num_regs) <= 0) return Qnil;
        }
        else if (nth >= regs->num_regs) return Qnil;
        beg = BEG(nth);
        len = END(nth) - beg;
        goto subseq;
    }
    else if (argc == 2) {
        beg = NUM2LONG(indx);
        len = NUM2LONG(argv[1]);
        goto num_index;
    }
    else if (FIXNUM_P(indx)) {
        beg = FIX2LONG(indx);
        if (!(p = rb_str_subpos(str, beg, &len))) return Qnil;
        if (!len) return Qnil;
        beg = p - RSTRING_PTR(str);
        goto subseq;
    }
    else if (RB_TYPE_P(indx, T_STRING)) {
        beg = rb_str_index(str, indx, 0);
        if (beg == -1) return Qnil;
        len = RSTRING_LEN(indx);
        result = str_duplicate(rb_cString, indx);
        goto squash;
    }
    else {
        switch (rb_range_beg_len(indx, &beg, &len, str_strlen(str, NULL), 0)) {
          case Qnil:
            return Qnil;
          case Qfalse:
            beg = NUM2LONG(indx);
            if (!(p = rb_str_subpos(str, beg, &len))) return Qnil;
            if (!len) return Qnil;
            beg = p - RSTRING_PTR(str);
            goto subseq;
          default:
            goto num_index;
        }
    }

  num_index:
    if (!(p = rb_str_subpos(str, beg, &len))) return Qnil;
    beg = p - RSTRING_PTR(str);

  subseq:
    result = rb_str_new(RSTRING_PTR(str)+beg, len);
    rb_enc_cr_str_copy_for_substr(result, str);

  squash:
    if (len > 0) {
        if (beg == 0) {
            rb_str_drop_bytes(str, len);
        }
        else {
            char *sptr = RSTRING_PTR(str);
            long slen = RSTRING_LEN(str);
            if (beg + len > slen) /* pathological check */
                len = slen - beg;
            memmove(sptr + beg,
                    sptr + beg + len,
                    slen - (beg + len));
            slen -= len;
            STR_SET_LEN(str, slen);
            TERM_FILL(&sptr[slen], TERM_LEN(str));
        }
    }
    return result;
}
split(field_sep = $;, limit = nil) → array click to toggle source
split(field_sep = $;, limit = nil) {|substring| ... } → self

Returns an array of substrings of self that are the result of splitting self at each occurrence of the given field separator field_sep.

When field_sep is $;:

  • If $; is nil (its default value), the split occurs just as if field_sep were given as a space character (see below).

  • If $; is a string, the split ocurs just as if field_sep were given as that string (see below).

When field_sep is ' ' and limit is nil, the split occurs at each sequence of whitespace:

'abc def ghi'.split(' ')         => ["abc", "def", "ghi"]
"abc \n\tdef\t\n  ghi".split(' ') # => ["abc", "def", "ghi"]
'abc  def   ghi'.split(' ')      => ["abc", "def", "ghi"]
''.split(' ')                    => []

When field_sep is a string different from ' ' and limit is nil, the split occurs at each occurrence of field_sep; trailing empty substrings are not returned:

'abracadabra'.split('ab')  => ["", "racad", "ra"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a')     => ["", "", "", "bcd"]
''.split('a')              => []
'3.14159'.split('1')       => ["3.", "4", "59"]
'!@#$%^$&*($)_+'.split('$') # => ["!@#", "%^", "&*(", ")_+"]
'тест'.split('т')          => ["", "ес"]
'こんにちは'.split('に')     => ["こん", "ちは"]

When field_sep is a Regexp and limit is nil, the split occurs at each occurrence of a match; trailing empty substrings are not returned:

'abracadabra'.split(/ab/) # => ["", "racad", "ra"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split(/a/)   => ["", "", "", "bcd"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split(//)    => ["a", "a", "a", "b", "c", "d", "a", "a", "a"]
'1 + 1 == 2'.split(/\W+/) # => ["1", "1", "2"]

If the Regexp contains groups, their matches are also included in the returned array:

'1:2:3'.split(/(:)()()/, 2) # => ["1", ":", "", "", "2:3"]

As seen above, if limit is nil, trailing empty substrings are not returned; the same is true if limit is zero:

'aaabcdaaa'.split('a')   => ["", "", "", "bcd"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 0) # => ["", "", "", "bcd"]

If limit is positive integer n, no more than n - 1- splits occur, so that at most n substrings are returned, and trailing empty substrings are included:

'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 1) # => ["aaabcdaaa"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 2) # => ["", "aabcdaaa"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 5) # => ["", "", "", "bcd", "aa"]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 7) # => ["", "", "", "bcd", "", "", ""]
'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', 8) # => ["", "", "", "bcd", "", "", ""]

Note that if field_sep is a Regexp containing groups, their matches are in the returned array, but do not count toward the limit.

If limit is negative, it behaves the same as if limit was nil, meaning that there is no limit, and trailing empty substrings are included:

'aaabcdaaa'.split('a', -1) # => ["", "", "", "bcd", "", "", ""]

If a block is given, it is called with each substring:

'abc def ghi'.split(' ') {|substring| p substring }

Output:

"abc"
"def"
"ghi"

Related: String#partition, String#rpartition.

static VALUE
rb_str_split_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE spat;
    VALUE limit;
    split_type_t split_type;
    long beg, end, i = 0, empty_count = -1;
    int lim = 0;
    VALUE result, tmp;

    result = rb_block_given_p() ? Qfalse : Qnil;
    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &spat, &limit) == 2) {
        lim = NUM2INT(limit);
        if (lim <= 0) limit = Qnil;
        else if (lim == 1) {
            if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0)
                return result ? rb_ary_new2(0) : str;
            tmp = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
            if (!result) {
                rb_yield(tmp);
                return str;
            }
            return rb_ary_new3(1, tmp);
        }
        i = 1;
    }
    if (NIL_P(limit) && !lim) empty_count = 0;

    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    split_type = SPLIT_TYPE_REGEXP;
    if (!NIL_P(spat)) {
        spat = get_pat_quoted(spat, 0);
    }
    else if (NIL_P(spat = rb_fs)) {
        split_type = SPLIT_TYPE_AWK;
    }
    else if (!(spat = rb_fs_check(spat))) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "value of $; must be String or Regexp");
    }
    else {
        rb_category_warn(RB_WARN_CATEGORY_DEPRECATED, "$; is set to non-nil value");
    }
    if (split_type != SPLIT_TYPE_AWK) {
        switch (BUILTIN_TYPE(spat)) {
          case T_REGEXP:
            rb_reg_options(spat); /* check if uninitialized */
            tmp = RREGEXP_SRC(spat);
            split_type = literal_split_pattern(tmp, SPLIT_TYPE_REGEXP);
            if (split_type == SPLIT_TYPE_AWK) {
                spat = tmp;
                split_type = SPLIT_TYPE_STRING;
            }
            break;

          case T_STRING:
            mustnot_broken(spat);
            split_type = literal_split_pattern(spat, SPLIT_TYPE_STRING);
            break;

          default:
            UNREACHABLE_RETURN(Qnil);
        }
    }

#define SPLIT_STR(beg, len) (empty_count = split_string(result, str, beg, len, empty_count))

    if (result) result = rb_ary_new();
    beg = 0;
    char *ptr = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    char *eptr = RSTRING_END(str);
    if (split_type == SPLIT_TYPE_AWK) {
        char *bptr = ptr;
        int skip = 1;
        unsigned int c;

        end = beg;
        if (is_ascii_string(str)) {
            while (ptr < eptr) {
                c = (unsigned char)*ptr++;
                if (skip) {
                    if (ascii_isspace(c)) {
                        beg = ptr - bptr;
                    }
                    else {
                        end = ptr - bptr;
                        skip = 0;
                        if (!NIL_P(limit) && lim <= i) break;
                    }
                }
                else if (ascii_isspace(c)) {
                    SPLIT_STR(beg, end-beg);
                    skip = 1;
                    beg = ptr - bptr;
                    if (!NIL_P(limit)) ++i;
                }
                else {
                    end = ptr - bptr;
                }
            }
        }
        else {
            while (ptr < eptr) {
                int n;

                c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(ptr, eptr, &n, enc);
                ptr += n;
                if (skip) {
                    if (rb_isspace(c)) {
                        beg = ptr - bptr;
                    }
                    else {
                        end = ptr - bptr;
                        skip = 0;
                        if (!NIL_P(limit) && lim <= i) break;
                    }
                }
                else if (rb_isspace(c)) {
                    SPLIT_STR(beg, end-beg);
                    skip = 1;
                    beg = ptr - bptr;
                    if (!NIL_P(limit)) ++i;
                }
                else {
                    end = ptr - bptr;
                }
            }
        }
    }
    else if (split_type == SPLIT_TYPE_STRING) {
        char *str_start = ptr;
        char *substr_start = ptr;
        char *sptr = RSTRING_PTR(spat);
        long slen = RSTRING_LEN(spat);

        mustnot_broken(str);
        enc = rb_enc_check(str, spat);
        while (ptr < eptr &&
               (end = rb_memsearch(sptr, slen, ptr, eptr - ptr, enc)) >= 0) {
            /* Check we are at the start of a char */
            char *t = rb_enc_right_char_head(ptr, ptr + end, eptr, enc);
            if (t != ptr + end) {
                ptr = t;
                continue;
            }
            SPLIT_STR(substr_start - str_start, (ptr+end) - substr_start);
            ptr += end + slen;
            substr_start = ptr;
            if (!NIL_P(limit) && lim <= ++i) break;
        }
        beg = ptr - str_start;
    }
    else if (split_type == SPLIT_TYPE_CHARS) {
        char *str_start = ptr;
        int n;

        mustnot_broken(str);
        enc = rb_enc_get(str);
        while (ptr < eptr &&
               (n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(ptr, eptr, enc)) > 0) {
            SPLIT_STR(ptr - str_start, n);
            ptr += n;
            if (!NIL_P(limit) && lim <= ++i) break;
        }
        beg = ptr - str_start;
    }
    else {
        long len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
        long start = beg;
        long idx;
        int last_null = 0;
        struct re_registers *regs;
        VALUE match = 0;

        for (; rb_reg_search(spat, str, start, 0) >= 0;
             (match ? (rb_match_unbusy(match), rb_backref_set(match)) : (void)0)) {
            match = rb_backref_get();
            if (!result) rb_match_busy(match);
            regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
            end = BEG(0);
            if (start == end && BEG(0) == END(0)) {
                if (!ptr) {
                    SPLIT_STR(0, 0);
                    break;
                }
                else if (last_null == 1) {
                    SPLIT_STR(beg, rb_enc_fast_mbclen(ptr+beg, eptr, enc));
                    beg = start;
                }
                else {
                    if (start == len)
                        start++;
                    else
                        start += rb_enc_fast_mbclen(ptr+start,eptr,enc);
                    last_null = 1;
                    continue;
                }
            }
            else {
                SPLIT_STR(beg, end-beg);
                beg = start = END(0);
            }
            last_null = 0;

            for (idx=1; idx < regs->num_regs; idx++) {
                if (BEG(idx) == -1) continue;
                SPLIT_STR(BEG(idx), END(idx)-BEG(idx));
            }
            if (!NIL_P(limit) && lim <= ++i) break;
        }
        if (match) rb_match_unbusy(match);
    }
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) > 0 && (!NIL_P(limit) || RSTRING_LEN(str) > beg || lim < 0)) {
        SPLIT_STR(beg, RSTRING_LEN(str)-beg);
    }

    return result ? result : str;
}
squeeze(*selectors) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with characters specified by selectors “squeezed” (see Multiple Character Selectors):

“Squeezed” means that each multiple-character run of a selected character is squeezed down to a single character; with no arguments given, squeezes all characters:

"yellow moon".squeeze                  #=> "yelow mon"
"  now   is  the".squeeze(" ")         #=> " now is the"
"putters shoot balls".squeeze("m-z")   #=> "puters shot balls"
static VALUE
rb_str_squeeze(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    rb_str_squeeze_bang(argc, argv, str);
    return str;
}
squeeze!(*selectors) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#squeeze, but modifies self in place. Returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_squeeze_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    char squeez[TR_TABLE_SIZE];
    rb_encoding *enc = 0;
    VALUE del = 0, nodel = 0;
    unsigned char *s, *send, *t;
    int i, modify = 0;
    int ascompat, singlebyte = single_byte_optimizable(str);
    unsigned int save;

    if (argc == 0) {
        enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    }
    else {
        for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
            VALUE s = argv[i];

            StringValue(s);
            enc = rb_enc_check(str, s);
            if (singlebyte && !single_byte_optimizable(s))
                singlebyte = 0;
            tr_setup_table(s, squeez, i==0, &del, &nodel, enc);
        }
    }

    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    s = t = (unsigned char *)RSTRING_PTR(str);
    if (!s || RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return Qnil;
    send = (unsigned char *)RSTRING_END(str);
    save = -1;
    ascompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);

    if (singlebyte) {
        while (s < send) {
            unsigned int c = *s++;
            if (c != save || (argc > 0 && !squeez[c])) {
                *t++ = save = c;
            }
        }
    }
    else {
        while (s < send) {
            unsigned int c;
            int clen;

            if (ascompat && (c = *s) < 0x80) {
                if (c != save || (argc > 0 && !squeez[c])) {
                    *t++ = save = c;
                }
                s++;
            }
            else {
                c = rb_enc_codepoint_len((char *)s, (char *)send, &clen, enc);

                if (c != save || (argc > 0 && !tr_find(c, squeez, del, nodel))) {
                    if (t != s) rb_enc_mbcput(c, t, enc);
                    save = c;
                    t += clen;
                }
                s += clen;
            }
        }
    }

    TERM_FILL((char *)t, TERM_LEN(str));
    if ((char *)t - RSTRING_PTR(str) != RSTRING_LEN(str)) {
        STR_SET_LEN(str, (char *)t - RSTRING_PTR(str));
        modify = 1;
    }

    if (modify) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
start_with?(*string_or_regexp) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns whether self starts with any of the given string_or_regexp.

Matches patterns against the beginning of self. For each given string_or_regexp, the pattern is:

  • string_or_regexp itself, if it is a Regexp.

  • Regexp.quote(string_or_regexp), if string_or_regexp is a string.

Returns true if any pattern matches the beginning, false otherwise:

'hello'.start_with?('hell')               # => true
'hello'.start_with?(/H/i)                 # => true
'hello'.start_with?('heaven', 'hell')     # => true
'hello'.start_with?('heaven', 'paradise') # => false
'тест'.start_with?('т')                   # => true
'こんにちは'.start_with?('こ')              # => true

Related: String#end_with?.

static VALUE
rb_str_start_with(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    int i;

    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
        VALUE tmp = argv[i];
        if (RB_TYPE_P(tmp, T_REGEXP)) {
            if (rb_reg_start_with_p(tmp, str))
                return Qtrue;
        }
        else {
            StringValue(tmp);
            rb_enc_check(str, tmp);
            if (RSTRING_LEN(str) < RSTRING_LEN(tmp)) continue;
            if (memcmp(RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_PTR(tmp), RSTRING_LEN(tmp)) == 0)
                return Qtrue;
        }
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
strip → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of the receiver with leading and trailing whitespace removed; see Whitespace in Strings:

whitespace = "\x00\t\n\v\f\r "
s = whitespace + 'abc' + whitespace
s       # => "\u0000\t\n\v\f\r abc\u0000\t\n\v\f\r "
s.strip # => "abc"

Related: String#lstrip, String#rstrip.

static VALUE
rb_str_strip(VALUE str)
{
    char *start;
    long olen, loffset, roffset;
    rb_encoding *enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);

    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, olen);
    loffset = lstrip_offset(str, start, start+olen, enc);
    roffset = rstrip_offset(str, start+loffset, start+olen, enc);

    if (loffset <= 0 && roffset <= 0) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    return rb_str_subseq(str, loffset, olen-loffset-roffset);
}
strip! → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#strip, except that any modifications are made in self; returns self if any modification are made, nil otherwise.

Related: String#lstrip!, String#strip!.

static VALUE
rb_str_strip_bang(VALUE str)
{
    char *start;
    long olen, loffset, roffset;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
    RSTRING_GETMEM(str, start, olen);
    loffset = lstrip_offset(str, start, start+olen, enc);
    roffset = rstrip_offset(str, start+loffset, start+olen, enc);

    if (loffset > 0 || roffset > 0) {
        long len = olen-roffset;
        if (loffset > 0) {
            len -= loffset;
            memmove(start, start + loffset, len);
        }
        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(start+len, rb_enc_mbminlen(enc));
        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
sub(pattern, replacement) → new_string click to toggle source
sub(pattern) {|match| ... } → new_string

Returns a copy of self with only the first occurrence (not all occurrences) of the given pattern replaced.

See Substitution Methods.

Related: String#sub!, String#gsub, String#gsub!.

static VALUE
rb_str_sub(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    str = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    rb_str_sub_bang(argc, argv, str);
    return str;
}
sub!(pattern, replacement) → self or nil click to toggle source
sub!(pattern) {|match| ... } → self or nil

Returns self with only the first occurrence (not all occurrences) of the given pattern replaced.

See Substitution Methods.

Related: String#sub, String#gsub, String#gsub!.

static VALUE
rb_str_sub_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE pat, repl, hash = Qnil;
    int iter = 0;
    long plen;
    int min_arity = rb_block_given_p() ? 1 : 2;
    long beg;

    rb_check_arity(argc, min_arity, 2);
    if (argc == 1) {
        iter = 1;
    }
    else {
        repl = argv[1];
        hash = rb_check_hash_type(argv[1]);
        if (NIL_P(hash)) {
            StringValue(repl);
        }
    }

    pat = get_pat_quoted(argv[0], 1);

    str_modifiable(str);
    beg = rb_pat_search(pat, str, 0, 1);
    if (beg >= 0) {
        rb_encoding *enc;
        int cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str);
        long beg0, end0;
        VALUE match, match0 = Qnil;
        struct re_registers *regs;
        char *p, *rp;
        long len, rlen;

        match = rb_backref_get();
        regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
        if (RB_TYPE_P(pat, T_STRING)) {
            beg0 = beg;
            end0 = beg0 + RSTRING_LEN(pat);
            match0 = pat;
        }
        else {
            beg0 = BEG(0);
            end0 = END(0);
            if (iter) match0 = rb_reg_nth_match(0, match);
        }

        if (iter || !NIL_P(hash)) {
            p = RSTRING_PTR(str); len = RSTRING_LEN(str);

            if (iter) {
                repl = rb_obj_as_string(rb_yield(match0));
            }
            else {
                repl = rb_hash_aref(hash, rb_str_subseq(str, beg0, end0 - beg0));
                repl = rb_obj_as_string(repl);
            }
            str_mod_check(str, p, len);
            rb_check_frozen(str);
        }
        else {
            repl = rb_reg_regsub(repl, str, regs, RB_TYPE_P(pat, T_STRING) ? Qnil : pat);
        }

        enc = rb_enc_compatible(str, repl);
        if (!enc) {
            rb_encoding *str_enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
            p = RSTRING_PTR(str); len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
            if (coderange_scan(p, beg0, str_enc) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT ||
                coderange_scan(p+end0, len-end0, str_enc) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) {
                rb_raise(rb_eEncCompatError, "incompatible character encodings: %s and %s",
                         rb_enc_name(str_enc),
                         rb_enc_name(STR_ENC_GET(repl)));
            }
            enc = STR_ENC_GET(repl);
        }
        rb_str_modify(str);
        rb_enc_associate(str, enc);
        if (ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN < cr && cr < ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN) {
            int cr2 = ENC_CODERANGE(repl);
            if (cr2 == ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN ||
                (cr == ENC_CODERANGE_VALID && cr2 == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT))
                cr = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN;
            else
                cr = cr2;
        }
        plen = end0 - beg0;
        rlen = RSTRING_LEN(repl);
        len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
        if (rlen > plen) {
            RESIZE_CAPA(str, len + rlen - plen);
        }
        p = RSTRING_PTR(str);
        if (rlen != plen) {
            memmove(p + beg0 + rlen, p + beg0 + plen, len - beg0 - plen);
        }
        rp = RSTRING_PTR(repl);
        memmove(p + beg0, rp, rlen);
        len += rlen - plen;
        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(&RSTRING_PTR(str)[len], TERM_LEN(str));
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, cr);

        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
succ → new_str click to toggle source

Returns the successor to self. The successor is calculated by incrementing characters.

The first character to be incremented is the rightmost alphanumeric: or, if no alphanumerics, the rightmost character:

'THX1138'.succ # => "THX1139"
'<<koala>>'.succ # => "<<koalb>>"
'***'.succ # => '**+'

The successor to a digit is another digit, “carrying” to the next-left character for a “rollover” from 9 to 0, and prepending another digit if necessary:

'00'.succ # => "01"
'09'.succ # => "10"
'99'.succ # => "100"

The successor to a letter is another letter of the same case, carrying to the next-left character for a rollover, and prepending another same-case letter if necessary:

'aa'.succ # => "ab"
'az'.succ # => "ba"
'zz'.succ # => "aaa"
'AA'.succ # => "AB"
'AZ'.succ # => "BA"
'ZZ'.succ # => "AAA"

The successor to a non-alphanumeric character is the next character in the underlying character set’s collating sequence, carrying to the next-left character for a rollover, and prepending another character if necessary:

s = 0.chr * 3
s # => "\x00\x00\x00"
s.succ # => "\x00\x00\x01"
s = 255.chr * 3
s # => "\xFF\xFF\xFF"
s.succ # => "\x01\x00\x00\x00"

Carrying can occur between and among mixtures of alphanumeric characters:

s = 'zz99zz99'
s.succ # => "aaa00aa00"
s = '99zz99zz'
s.succ # => "100aa00aa"

The successor to an empty String is a new empty String:

''.succ # => ""

String#next is an alias for String#succ.

VALUE
rb_str_succ(VALUE orig)
{
    VALUE str;
    str = rb_str_new(RSTRING_PTR(orig), RSTRING_LEN(orig));
    rb_enc_cr_str_copy_for_substr(str, orig);
    return str_succ(str);
}
Also aliased as: next
succ! → self click to toggle source

Equivalent to String#succ, but modifies self in place; returns self.

String#next! is an alias for String#succ!.

static VALUE
rb_str_succ_bang(VALUE str)
{
    rb_str_modify(str);
    str_succ(str);
    return str;
}
Also aliased as: next!
sum(n = 16) → integer click to toggle source

Returns a basic n-bit checksum of the characters in self; the checksum is the sum of the binary value of each byte in self, modulo 2**n - 1:

'hello'.sum     # => 532
'hello'.sum(4)  # => 4
'hello'.sum(64) # => 532
'тест'.sum      # => 1405
'こんにちは'.sum  # => 2582

This is not a particularly strong checksum.

static VALUE
rb_str_sum(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    int bits = 16;
    char *ptr, *p, *pend;
    long len;
    VALUE sum = INT2FIX(0);
    unsigned long sum0 = 0;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) && (bits = NUM2INT(argv[0])) < 0) {
        bits = 0;
    }
    ptr = p = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
    pend = p + len;

    while (p < pend) {
        if (FIXNUM_MAX - UCHAR_MAX < sum0) {
            sum = rb_funcall(sum, '+', 1, LONG2FIX(sum0));
            str_mod_check(str, ptr, len);
            sum0 = 0;
        }
        sum0 += (unsigned char)*p;
        p++;
    }

    if (bits == 0) {
        if (sum0) {
            sum = rb_funcall(sum, '+', 1, LONG2FIX(sum0));
        }
    }
    else {
        if (sum == INT2FIX(0)) {
            if (bits < (int)sizeof(long)*CHAR_BIT) {
                sum0 &= (((unsigned long)1)<<bits)-1;
            }
            sum = LONG2FIX(sum0);
        }
        else {
            VALUE mod;

            if (sum0) {
                sum = rb_funcall(sum, '+', 1, LONG2FIX(sum0));
            }

            mod = rb_funcall(INT2FIX(1), idLTLT, 1, INT2FIX(bits));
            mod = rb_funcall(mod, '-', 1, INT2FIX(1));
            sum = rb_funcall(sum, '&', 1, mod);
        }
    }
    return sum;
}
swapcase(*options) → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the characters in self, with cases reversed; each uppercase character is downcased; each lowercase character is upcased:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.swapcase         # => "hELLO wORLD!"

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#swapcase!.

static VALUE
rb_str_swapcase(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE | ONIGENC_CASE_DOWNCASE;
    VALUE ret;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0 || !RSTRING_PTR(str)) return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY) {
        ret = rb_str_new(0, RSTRING_LEN(str));
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, ret, &flags, enc);
    }
    else {
        ret = rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc);
    }
    return ret;
}
swapcase!(*options) → self or nil click to toggle source

Upcases each lowercase character in self; downcases uppercase character; returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.swapcase!        # => "hELLO wORLD!"
s                  # => "hELLO wORLD!"
''.swapcase!       # => nil

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#swapcase.

static VALUE
rb_str_swapcase_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE | ONIGENC_CASE_DOWNCASE;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY)
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, str, &flags, enc);
    else
        str_shared_replace(str, rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc));

    if (ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED&flags) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
to_c → complex click to toggle source

Returns a complex which denotes the string form. The parser ignores leading whitespaces and trailing garbage. Any digit sequences can be separated by an underscore. Returns zero for null or garbage string.

'9'.to_c           #=> (9+0i)
'2.5'.to_c         #=> (2.5+0i)
'2.5/1'.to_c       #=> ((5/2)+0i)
'-3/2'.to_c        #=> ((-3/2)+0i)
'-i'.to_c          #=> (0-1i)
'45i'.to_c         #=> (0+45i)
'3-4i'.to_c        #=> (3-4i)
'-4e2-4e-2i'.to_c  #=> (-400.0-0.04i)
'-0.0-0.0i'.to_c   #=> (-0.0-0.0i)
'1/2+3/4i'.to_c    #=> ((1/2)+(3/4)*i)
'ruby'.to_c        #=> (0+0i)

See Kernel.Complex.

static VALUE
string_to_c(VALUE self)
{
    char *s;
    VALUE num;

    rb_must_asciicompat(self);

    s = RSTRING_PTR(self);

    if (s && s[RSTRING_LEN(self)]) {
        rb_str_modify(self);
        s = RSTRING_PTR(self);
        s[RSTRING_LEN(self)] = '\0';
    }

    if (!s)
        s = (char *)"";

    (void)parse_comp(s, 0, &num);

    return num;
}
to_d → bigdecimal click to toggle source

Returns the result of interpreting leading characters in str as a BigDecimal.

require 'bigdecimal'
require 'bigdecimal/util'

"0.5".to_d             # => 0.5e0
"123.45e1".to_d        # => 0.12345e4
"45.67 degrees".to_d   # => 0.4567e2

See also BigDecimal::new.

# File ext/bigdecimal/lib/bigdecimal/util.rb, line 72
def to_d
  BigDecimal.interpret_loosely(self)
end
to_f → float click to toggle source

Returns the result of interpreting leading characters in self as a Float:

'3.14159'.to_f  # => 3.14159
'1.234e-2'.to_f # => 0.01234

Characters past a leading valid number (in the given base) are ignored:

'3.14 (pi to two places)'.to_f # => 3.14

Returns zero if there is no leading valid number:

'abcdef'.to_f # => 0.0
static VALUE
rb_str_to_f(VALUE str)
{
    return DBL2NUM(rb_str_to_dbl(str, FALSE));
}
to_i(base = 10) → integer click to toggle source

Returns the result of interpreting leading characters in self as an integer in the given base (which must be in (0, 2..36)):

'123456'.to_i     # => 123456
'123def'.to_i(16) # => 1195503

With base zero, string object may contain leading characters to specify the actual base:

'123def'.to_i(0)   # => 123
'0123def'.to_i(0)  # => 83
'0b123def'.to_i(0) # => 1
'0o123def'.to_i(0) # => 83
'0d123def'.to_i(0) # => 123
'0x123def'.to_i(0) # => 1195503

Characters past a leading valid number (in the given base) are ignored:

'12.345'.to_i   # => 12
'12345'.to_i(2) # => 1

Returns zero if there is no leading valid number:

'abcdef'.to_i # => 0
'2'.to_i(2)   # => 0
static VALUE
rb_str_to_i(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    int base = 10;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) && (base = NUM2INT(argv[0])) < 0) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid radix %d", base);
    }
    return rb_str_to_inum(str, base, FALSE);
}
to_r → rational click to toggle source

Returns the result of interpreting leading characters in str as a rational. Leading whitespace and extraneous characters past the end of a valid number are ignored. Digit sequences can be separated by an underscore. If there is not a valid number at the start of str, zero is returned. This method never raises an exception.

'  2  '.to_r       #=> (2/1)
'300/2'.to_r       #=> (150/1)
'-9.2'.to_r        #=> (-46/5)
'-9.2e2'.to_r      #=> (-920/1)
'1_234_567'.to_r   #=> (1234567/1)
'21 June 09'.to_r  #=> (21/1)
'21/06/09'.to_r    #=> (7/2)
'BWV 1079'.to_r    #=> (0/1)

NOTE: “0.3”.to_r isn’t the same as 0.3.to_r. The former is equivalent to “3/10”.to_r, but the latter isn’t so.

"0.3".to_r == 3/10r  #=> true
0.3.to_r   == 3/10r  #=> false

See also Kernel#Rational.

static VALUE
string_to_r(VALUE self)
{
    VALUE num;

    rb_must_asciicompat(self);

    num = parse_rat(RSTRING_PTR(self), RSTRING_END(self), 0, TRUE);

    if (RB_FLOAT_TYPE_P(num) && !FLOAT_ZERO_P(num))
        rb_raise(rb_eFloatDomainError, "Infinity");
    return num;
}
to_s → self or string click to toggle source

Returns self if self is a String, or self converted to a String if self is a subclass of String.

String#to_str is an alias for String#to_s.

static VALUE
rb_str_to_s(VALUE str)
{
    if (rb_obj_class(str) != rb_cString) {
        return str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    }
    return str;
}
Also aliased as: to_str
to_str()

Returns self if self is a String, or self converted to a String if self is a subclass of String.

String#to_str is an alias for String#to_s.

Alias for: to_s
to_sym → symbol

Returns the Symbol corresponding to str, creating the symbol if it did not previously exist. See Symbol#id2name.

"Koala".intern         #=> :Koala
s = 'cat'.to_sym       #=> :cat
s == :cat              #=> true
s = '@cat'.to_sym      #=> :@cat
s == :@cat             #=> true

This can also be used to create symbols that cannot be represented using the :xxx notation.

'cat and dog'.to_sym   #=> :"cat and dog"
Alias for: intern
String#toeuc → string click to toggle source

Convert self to EUC-JP

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 224
def toeuc; Kconv.toeuc(self) end
String#tojis → string click to toggle source

Convert self to ISO-2022-JP

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 218
def tojis; Kconv.tojis(self) end
String#tolocale → string click to toggle source

Convert self to locale encoding

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 254
def tolocale; Kconv.tolocale(self) end
String#tosjis → string click to toggle source

Convert self to Shift_JIS

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 230
def tosjis; Kconv.tosjis(self) end
String#toutf16 → string click to toggle source

Convert self to UTF-16

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 242
def toutf16; Kconv.toutf16(self) end
String#toutf32 → string click to toggle source

Convert self to UTF-32

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 248
def toutf32; Kconv.toutf32(self) end
String#toutf8 → string click to toggle source

Convert self to UTF-8

# File ext/nkf/lib/kconv.rb, line 236
def toutf8; Kconv.toutf8(self) end
tr(selector, replacements) → new_string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with each character specified by string selector translated to the corresponding character in string replacements. The correspondence is positional:

  • Each occurrence of the first character specified by selector is translated to the first character in replacements.

  • Each occurrence of the second character specified by selector is translated to the second character in replacements.

  • And so on.

Example:

'hello'.tr('el', 'ip') #=> "hippo"

If replacements is shorter than selector, it is implicitly padded with its own last character:

'hello'.tr('aeiou', '-')   # => "h-ll-"
'hello'.tr('aeiou', 'AA-') # => "hAll-"

Arguments selector and replacements must be valid character selectors (see Character Selectors), and may use any of its valid forms, including negation, ranges, and escaping:

# Negation.
'hello'.tr('^aeiou', '-') # => "-e--o"
# Ranges.
'ibm'.tr('b-z', 'a-z') # => "hal"
# Escapes.
'hel^lo'.tr('\^aeiou', '-')     # => "h-l-l-"    # Escaped leading caret.
'i-b-m'.tr('b\-z', 'a-z')       # => "ibabm"     # Escaped embedded hyphen.
'foo\\bar'.tr('ab\\', 'XYZ')    # => "fooZYXr"   # Escaped backslash.
static VALUE
rb_str_tr(VALUE str, VALUE src, VALUE repl)
{
    str = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    tr_trans(str, src, repl, 0);
    return str;
}
tr!(selector, replacements) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#tr, but modifies self in place. Returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise.

static VALUE
rb_str_tr_bang(VALUE str, VALUE src, VALUE repl)
{
    return tr_trans(str, src, repl, 0);
}
tr_s(selector, replacements) → string click to toggle source

Like String#tr, but also squeezes the modified portions of the translated string; returns a new string (translated and squeezed).

'hello'.tr_s('l', 'r')   #=> "hero"
'hello'.tr_s('el', '-')  #=> "h-o"
'hello'.tr_s('el', 'hx') #=> "hhxo"

Related: String#squeeze.

static VALUE
rb_str_tr_s(VALUE str, VALUE src, VALUE repl)
{
    str = str_duplicate(rb_cString, str);
    tr_trans(str, src, repl, 1);
    return str;
}
tr_s!(selector, replacements) → self or nil click to toggle source

Like String#tr_s, but modifies self in place. Returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise.

Related: String#squeeze!.

static VALUE
rb_str_tr_s_bang(VALUE str, VALUE src, VALUE repl)
{
    return tr_trans(str, src, repl, 1);
}
undump → string click to toggle source

Returns an unescaped version of self:

s_orig = "\f\x00\xff\\\""    # => "\f\u0000\xFF\\\""
s_dumped = s_orig.dump       # => "\"\\f\\x00\\xFF\\\\\\\"\""
s_undumped = s_dumped.undump # => "\f\u0000\xFF\\\""
s_undumped == s_orig         # => true

Related: String#dump (inverse of String#undump).

static VALUE
str_undump(VALUE str)
{
    const char *s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    const char *s_end = RSTRING_END(str);
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_get(str);
    VALUE undumped = rb_enc_str_new(s, 0L, enc);
    bool utf8 = false;
    bool binary = false;
    int w;

    rb_must_asciicompat(str);
    if (rb_str_is_ascii_only_p(str) == Qfalse) {
        rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "non-ASCII character detected");
    }
    if (!str_null_check(str, &w)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "string contains null byte");
    }
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) < 2) goto invalid_format;
    if (*s != '"') goto invalid_format;

    /* strip '"' at the start */
    s++;

    for (;;) {
        if (s >= s_end) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "unterminated dumped string");
        }

        if (*s == '"') {
            /* epilogue */
            s++;
            if (s == s_end) {
                /* ascii compatible dumped string */
                break;
            }
            else {
                static const char force_encoding_suffix[] = ".force_encoding(\""; /* "\")" */
                static const char dup_suffix[] = ".dup";
                const char *encname;
                int encidx;
                ptrdiff_t size;

                /* check separately for strings dumped by older versions */
                size = sizeof(dup_suffix) - 1;
                if (s_end - s > size && memcmp(s, dup_suffix, size) == 0) s += size;

                size = sizeof(force_encoding_suffix) - 1;
                if (s_end - s <= size) goto invalid_format;
                if (memcmp(s, force_encoding_suffix, size) != 0) goto invalid_format;
                s += size;

                if (utf8) {
                    rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "dumped string contained Unicode escape but used force_encoding");
                }

                encname = s;
                s = memchr(s, '"', s_end-s);
                size = s - encname;
                if (!s) goto invalid_format;
                if (s_end - s != 2) goto invalid_format;
                if (s[0] != '"' || s[1] != ')') goto invalid_format;

                encidx = rb_enc_find_index2(encname, (long)size);
                if (encidx < 0) {
                    rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "dumped string has unknown encoding name");
                }
                rb_enc_associate_index(undumped, encidx);
            }
            break;
        }

        if (*s == '\\') {
            s++;
            if (s >= s_end) {
                rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "invalid escape");
            }
            undump_after_backslash(undumped, &s, s_end, &enc, &utf8, &binary);
        }
        else {
            rb_str_cat(undumped, s++, 1);
        }
    }

    return undumped;
invalid_format:
    rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "invalid dumped string; not wrapped with '\"' nor '\"...\".force_encoding(\"...\")' form");
}
unicode_normalize(form = :nfc) → string click to toggle source

Returns a copy of self with Unicode normalization applied.

Argument form must be one of the following symbols (see Unicode normalization forms):

  • :nfc: Canonical decomposition, followed by canonical composition.

  • :nfd: Canonical decomposition.

  • :nfkc: Compatibility decomposition, followed by canonical composition.

  • :nfkd: Compatibility decomposition.

The encoding of self must be one of:

  • Encoding::UTF_8

  • Encoding::UTF_16BE

  • Encoding::UTF_16LE

  • Encoding::UTF_32BE

  • Encoding::UTF_32LE

  • Encoding::GB18030

  • Encoding::UCS_2BE

  • Encoding::UCS_4BE

Examples:

"a\u0300".unicode_normalize      # => "a"
"\u00E0".unicode_normalize(:nfd) # => "a "

Related: String#unicode_normalize!, String#unicode_normalized?.

static VALUE
rb_str_unicode_normalize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return unicode_normalize_common(argc, argv, str, id_normalize);
}
unicode_normalize!(form = :nfc) → self click to toggle source

Like String#unicode_normalize, except that the normalization is performed on self.

Related String#unicode_normalized?.

static VALUE
rb_str_unicode_normalize_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return rb_str_replace(str, unicode_normalize_common(argc, argv, str, id_normalize));
}
unicode_normalized?(form = :nfc) → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if self is in the given form of Unicode normalization, false otherwise. The form must be one of :nfc, :nfd, :nfkc, or :nfkd.

Examples:

"a\u0300".unicode_normalized?       # => false
"a\u0300".unicode_normalized?(:nfd) # => true
"\u00E0".unicode_normalized?        # => true
"\u00E0".unicode_normalized?(:nfd)  # => false

Raises an exception if self is not in a Unicode encoding:

s = "\xE0".force_encoding('ISO-8859-1')
s.unicode_normalized? # Raises Encoding::CompatibilityError.

Related: String#unicode_normalize, String#unicode_normalize!.

static VALUE
rb_str_unicode_normalized_p(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    return unicode_normalize_common(argc, argv, str, id_normalized_p);
}
unpack(format) → anArray click to toggle source
unpack(format, offset: anInteger) → anArray

Decodes str (which may contain binary data) according to the format string, returning an array of each value extracted. The format string consists of a sequence of single-character directives, summarized in the table at the end of this entry. Each directive may be followed by a number, indicating the number of times to repeat with this directive. An asterisk (“*”) will use up all remaining elements. The directives sSiIlL may each be followed by an underscore (“_”) or exclamation mark (“!”) to use the underlying platform’s native size for the specified type; otherwise, it uses a platform-independent consistent size. Spaces are ignored in the format string.

See also String#unpack1, Array#pack.

"abc \0\0abc \0\0".unpack('A6Z6')   #=> ["abc", "abc "]
"abc \0\0".unpack('a3a3')           #=> ["abc", " \000\000"]
"abc \0abc \0".unpack('Z*Z*')       #=> ["abc ", "abc "]
"aa".unpack('b8B8')                 #=> ["10000110", "01100001"]
"aaa".unpack('h2H2c')               #=> ["16", "61", 97]
"\xfe\xff\xfe\xff".unpack('sS')     #=> [-2, 65534]
"now=20is".unpack('M*')             #=> ["now is"]
"whole".unpack('xax2aX2aX1aX2a')    #=> ["h", "e", "l", "l", "o"]

This table summarizes the various formats and the Ruby classes returned by each.

Integer       |         |
Directive     | Returns | Meaning
------------------------------------------------------------------
C             | Integer | 8-bit unsigned (unsigned char)
S             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, native endian (uint16_t)
L             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, native endian (uint32_t)
Q             | Integer | 64-bit unsigned, native endian (uint64_t)
J             | Integer | pointer width unsigned, native endian (uintptr_t)
              |         |
c             | Integer | 8-bit signed (signed char)
s             | Integer | 16-bit signed, native endian (int16_t)
l             | Integer | 32-bit signed, native endian (int32_t)
q             | Integer | 64-bit signed, native endian (int64_t)
j             | Integer | pointer width signed, native endian (intptr_t)
              |         |
S_ S!         | Integer | unsigned short, native endian
I I_ I!       | Integer | unsigned int, native endian
L_ L!         | Integer | unsigned long, native endian
Q_ Q!         | Integer | unsigned long long, native endian (ArgumentError
              |         | if the platform has no long long type.)
J!            | Integer | uintptr_t, native endian (same with J)
              |         |
s_ s!         | Integer | signed short, native endian
i i_ i!       | Integer | signed int, native endian
l_ l!         | Integer | signed long, native endian
q_ q!         | Integer | signed long long, native endian (ArgumentError
              |         | if the platform has no long long type.)
j!            | Integer | intptr_t, native endian (same with j)
              |         |
S> s> S!> s!> | Integer | same as the directives without ">" except
L> l> L!> l!> |         | big endian
I!> i!>       |         |
Q> q> Q!> q!> |         | "S>" is the same as "n"
J> j> J!> j!> |         | "L>" is the same as "N"
              |         |
S< s< S!< s!< | Integer | same as the directives without "<" except
L< l< L!< l!< |         | little endian
I!< i!<       |         |
Q< q< Q!< q!< |         | "S<" is the same as "v"
J< j< J!< j!< |         | "L<" is the same as "V"
              |         |
n             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, network (big-endian) byte order
N             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, network (big-endian) byte order
v             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, VAX (little-endian) byte order
V             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, VAX (little-endian) byte order
              |         |
U             | Integer | UTF-8 character
w             | Integer | BER-compressed integer (see Array#pack)

Float        |         |
Directive    | Returns | Meaning
-----------------------------------------------------------------
D d          | Float   | double-precision, native format
F f          | Float   | single-precision, native format
E            | Float   | double-precision, little-endian byte order
e            | Float   | single-precision, little-endian byte order
G            | Float   | double-precision, network (big-endian) byte order
g            | Float   | single-precision, network (big-endian) byte order

String       |         |
Directive    | Returns | Meaning
-----------------------------------------------------------------
A            | String  | arbitrary binary string (remove trailing nulls and ASCII spaces)
a            | String  | arbitrary binary string
Z            | String  | null-terminated string
B            | String  | bit string (MSB first)
b            | String  | bit string (LSB first)
H            | String  | hex string (high nibble first)
h            | String  | hex string (low nibble first)
u            | String  | UU-encoded string
M            | String  | quoted-printable, MIME encoding (see RFC2045)
m            | String  | base64 encoded string (RFC 2045) (default)
             |         | base64 encoded string (RFC 4648) if followed by 0
P            | String  | pointer to a structure (fixed-length string)
p            | String  | pointer to a null-terminated string

Misc.        |         |
Directive    | Returns | Meaning
-----------------------------------------------------------------
@            | ---     | skip to the offset given by the length argument
X            | ---     | skip backward one byte
x            | ---     | skip forward one byte

The keyword offset can be given to start the decoding after skipping the specified amount of bytes:

"abc".unpack("C*") # => [97, 98, 99]
"abc".unpack("C*", offset: 2) # => [99]
"abc".unpack("C*", offset: 4) # => offset outside of string (ArgumentError)

HISTORY

  • J, J! j, and j! are available since Ruby 2.3.

  • Q_, Q!, q_, and q! are available since Ruby 2.1.

  • I!<, i!<, I!>, and i!> are available since Ruby 1.9.3.

# File pack.rb, line 273
def unpack(fmt, offset: 0)
  Primitive.pack_unpack(fmt, offset)
end
unpack1(format) → obj click to toggle source
unpack1(format, offset: anInteger) → obj

Decodes str (which may contain binary data) according to the format string, returning the first value extracted.

See also String#unpack, Array#pack.

Contrast with String#unpack:

"abc \0\0abc \0\0".unpack('A6Z6')   #=> ["abc", "abc "]
"abc \0\0abc \0\0".unpack1('A6Z6')  #=> "abc"

In that case data would be lost but often it’s the case that the array only holds one value, especially when unpacking binary data. For instance:

"\xff\x00\x00\x00".unpack("l")         #=>  [255]
"\xff\x00\x00\x00".unpack1("l")        #=>  255

Thus unpack1 is convenient, makes clear the intention and signals the expected return value to those reading the code.

The keyword offset can be given to start the decoding after skipping the specified amount of bytes:

"abc".unpack1("C*") # => 97
"abc".unpack1("C*", offset: 2) # => 99
"abc".unpack1("C*", offset: 4) # => offset outside of string (ArgumentError)
# File pack.rb, line 306
def unpack1(fmt, offset: 0)
  Primitive.pack_unpack1(fmt, offset)
end
upcase(*options) → string click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the upcased characters in self:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.upcase           # => "HELLO WORLD!"

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#upcase!, String#downcase, String#downcase!.

static VALUE
rb_str_upcase(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE;
    VALUE ret;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (case_option_single_p(flags, enc, str)) {
        ret = rb_str_new(RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_LEN(str));
        str_enc_copy(ret, str);
        upcase_single(ret);
    }
    else if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY) {
        ret = rb_str_new(0, RSTRING_LEN(str));
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, ret, &flags, enc);
    }
    else {
        ret = rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc);
    }

    return ret;
}
upcase!(*options) → self or nil click to toggle source

Upcases the characters in self; returns self if any changes were made, nil otherwise:

s = 'Hello World!' # => "Hello World!"
s.upcase!          # => "HELLO WORLD!"
s                  # => "HELLO WORLD!"
s.upcase!          # => nil

The casing may be affected by the given options; see Case Mapping.

Related: String#upcase, String#downcase, String#downcase!.

static VALUE
rb_str_upcase_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    rb_encoding *enc;
    OnigCaseFoldType flags = ONIGENC_CASE_UPCASE;

    flags = check_case_options(argc, argv, flags);
    str_modify_keep_cr(str);
    enc = str_true_enc(str);
    if (case_option_single_p(flags, enc, str)) {
        if (upcase_single(str))
            flags |= ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED;
    }
    else if (flags&ONIGENC_CASE_ASCII_ONLY)
        rb_str_ascii_casemap(str, str, &flags, enc);
    else
        str_shared_replace(str, rb_str_casemap(str, &flags, enc));

    if (ONIGENC_CASE_MODIFIED&flags) return str;
    return Qnil;
}
upto(other_string, exclusive = false) {|string| ... } → self click to toggle source
upto(other_string, exclusive = false) → new_enumerator

With a block given, calls the block with each String value returned by successive calls to String#succ; the first value is self, the next is self.succ, and so on; the sequence terminates when value other_string is reached; returns self:

'a8'.upto('b6') {|s| print s, ' ' } # => "a8"

Output:

a8 a9 b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6

If argument exclusive is given as a truthy object, the last value is omitted:

'a8'.upto('b6', true) {|s| print s, ' ' } # => "a8"

Output:

a8 a9 b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

If other_string would not be reached, does not call the block:

'25'.upto('5') {|s| fail s }
'aa'.upto('a') {|s| fail s }

With no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

'a8'.upto('b6') # => #<Enumerator: "a8":upto("b6")>
static VALUE
rb_str_upto(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE beg)
{
    VALUE end, exclusive;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &end, &exclusive);
    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(beg, argc, argv);
    return rb_str_upto_each(beg, end, RTEST(exclusive), str_upto_i, Qnil);
}
valid_encoding? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if self is encoded correctly, false otherwise:

"\xc2\xa1".force_encoding("UTF-8").valid_encoding? # => true
"\xc2".force_encoding("UTF-8").valid_encoding?     # => false
"\x80".force_encoding("UTF-8").valid_encoding?     # => false
static VALUE
rb_str_valid_encoding_p(VALUE str)
{
    int cr = rb_enc_str_coderange(str);

    return RBOOL(cr != ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN);
}