class Net::HTTP

Class Net::HTTP provides a rich library that implements the client in a client-server model that uses the HTTP request-response protocol. For information about HTTP, see

Note: If you are performing only a few GET requests, consider using OpenURI; otherwise, read on.

Synopsis

If you are already familiar with HTTP, this synopsis may be helpful.

Session with multiple requests for HTTP methods:

Net::HTTP.start(hostname) do |http|
  # Session started automatically before block execution.
  http.get(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.head(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.post(path_or_uri, data, headers = {})  # Can also have a block.
  http.put(path_or_uri, data, headers = {})
  http.delete(path_or_uri, headers = {Depth: 'Infinity'})
  http.options(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.trace(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.patch(path_or_uri, data, headers = {}) # Can also have a block.
  # Session finished automatically at block exit.
end

Session with multiple requests for WebDAV methods:

Net::HTTP.start(hostname) do |http|
  # Session started automatically before block execution.
  http.copy(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.lock(path_or_uri, body, headers = {})
  http.mkcol(path_or_uri, body = nil, headers = {})
  http.move(path_or_uri, headers = {})
  http.propfind(path_or_uri, body = nil, headers = {'Depth' => '0'})
  http.proppatch(path_or_uri, body, headers = {})
  http.unlock(path_or_uri, body, headers = {})
  # Session finished automatically at block exit.
end

Each of the following methods automatically starts and finishes a session that sends a single request:

# Return string response body.
Net::HTTP.get(hostname, path, port = 80)
Net::HTTP.get(uri, headers = {}, port = 80)

# Write string response body to $stdout.
Net::HTTP.get_print(hostname, path_or_uri, port = 80)
Net::HTTP.get_print(uri, headers = {}, port = 80)

# Return response as Net::HTTPResponse object.
Net::HTTP.get_response(hostname, path_or_uri, port = 80)
Net::HTTP.get_response(uri, headers = {}, port = 80)

Net::HTTP.post(uri, data, headers = {})
Net::HTTP.post_form(uri, params)

About the Examples

Examples here assume that net/http has been required (which also requires uri):

require 'net/http'

Many code examples here use these example websites:

Some examples also assume these variables:

uri = URI('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com')
uri.freeze # Examples may not modify.
hostname = uri.hostname # => "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com"
port = uri.port         # => 443

So that example requests may be written as:

Net::HTTP.get(uri)
Net::HTTP.get(hostname, '/index.html')
Net::HTTP.start(hostname) do |http|
  http.get('/todos/1')
  http.get('/todos/2')
end

An example that needs a modified URI first duplicates uri, then modifies the duplicate:

_uri = uri.dup
_uri.path = '/todos/1'

URIs

On the internet, a URI (Universal Resource Identifier) is a string that identifies a particular resource. It consists of some or all of: scheme, hostname, path, query, and fragment; see URI syntax.

A Ruby URI::Generic object represents an internet URI. It provides, among others, methods scheme, hostname, path, query, and fragment.

Schemes

An internet URI has a scheme.

The two schemes supported in Net::HTTP are 'https' and 'http':

uri.scheme                       # => "https"
URI('http://example.com').scheme # => "http"

Hostnames

A hostname identifies a server (host) to which requests may be sent:

hostname = uri.hostname # => "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com"
Net::HTTP.start(hostname) do |http|
  # Some HTTP stuff.
end

Paths

A host-specific path identifies a resource on the host:

_uri = uri.dup
_uri.path = '/todos/1'
hostname = _uri.hostname
path = _uri.path
Net::HTTP.get(hostname, path)

Queries

A host-specific query adds name/value pairs to the URI:

_uri = uri.dup
params = {userId: 1, completed: false}
_uri.query = URI.encode_www_form(params)
_uri # => #<URI::HTTPS https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com?userId=1&completed=false>
Net::HTTP.get(_uri)

Fragments

A URI fragment has no effect in Net::HTTP; the same data is returned, regardless of whether a fragment is included.

Request Headers

Request headers may be used to pass additional information to the host, similar to arguments passed in a method call; each header is a name/value pair.

Each of the Net::HTTP methods that sends a request to the host has optional argument headers, where the headers are expressed as a hash of field-name/value pairs:

headers = {Accept: 'application/json', Connection: 'Keep-Alive'}
Net::HTTP.get(uri, headers)

See lists of both standard request fields and common request fields at Request Fields. A host may also accept other custom fields.

Sessions

A session is a connection between a server (host) and a client that:

See example sessions at the Synopsis.

Session Using Net::HTTP.start

If you have many requests to make to a single host (and port), consider using singleton method Net::HTTP.start with a block; the method handles the session automatically by:

In the block, you can use these instance methods, each of which that sends a single request:

Session Using Net::HTTP.start and Net::HTTP.finish

You can manage a session manually using methods start and finish:

http = Net::HTTP.new(hostname)
http.start
http.get('/todos/1')
http.get('/todos/2')
http.delete('/posts/1')
http.finish # Needed to free resources.

Single-Request Session

Certain convenience methods automatically handle a session by:

Such methods that send GET requests:

Such methods that send POST requests:

HTTP Requests and Responses

Many of the methods above are convenience methods, each of which sends a request and returns a string without directly using Net::HTTPRequest and Net::HTTPResponse objects.

You can, however, directly create a request object, send the request, and retrieve the response object; see:

Following Redirection

Each Net::HTTPResponse object belongs to a class for its response code.

For example, all 2XX responses are instances of a Net::HTTPSuccess subclass, a 3XX response is an instance of a Net::HTTPRedirection subclass and a 200 response is an instance of the Net::HTTPOK class. For details of response classes, see the section “HTTP Response Classes” below.

Using a case statement you can handle various types of responses properly:

def fetch(uri_str, limit = 10)
  # You should choose a better exception.
  raise ArgumentError, 'too many HTTP redirects' if limit == 0

  response = Net::HTTP.get_response(URI(uri_str))

  case response
  when Net::HTTPSuccess then
    response
  when Net::HTTPRedirection then
    location = response['location']
    warn "redirected to #{location}"
    fetch(location, limit - 1)
  else
    response.value
  end
end

print fetch('http://www.ruby-lang.org')

Basic Authentication

Basic authentication is performed according to [RFC2617](www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2617.txt).

uri = URI('http://example.com/index.html?key=value')

req = Net::HTTP::Get.new(uri)
req.basic_auth 'user', 'pass'

res = Net::HTTP.start(uri.hostname, uri.port) {|http|
  http.request(req)
}
puts res.body

Streaming Response Bodies

By default Net::HTTP reads an entire response into memory. If you are handling large files or wish to implement a progress bar you can instead stream the body directly to an IO.

uri = URI('http://example.com/large_file')

Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port) do |http|
  request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri

  http.request request do |response|
    open 'large_file', 'w' do |io|
      response.read_body do |chunk|
        io.write chunk
      end
    end
  end
end

HTTPS

HTTPS is enabled for an HTTP connection by Net::HTTP#use_ssl=.

uri = URI('https://secure.example.com/some_path?query=string')

Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port, :use_ssl => true) do |http|
  request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri
  response = http.request request # Net::HTTPResponse object
end

Or if you simply want to make a GET request, you may pass in an URI object that has an HTTPS URL. Net::HTTP automatically turns on TLS verification if the URI object has a ‘https’ URI scheme.

uri = URI('https://example.com/')
Net::HTTP.get(uri) # => String

In previous versions of Ruby you would need to require ‘net/https’ to use HTTPS. This is no longer true.

Proxies

Net::HTTP will automatically create a proxy from the http_proxy environment variable if it is present. To disable use of http_proxy, pass nil for the proxy address.

You may also create a custom proxy:

proxy_addr = 'your.proxy.host'
proxy_port = 8080

Net::HTTP.new('example.com', nil, proxy_addr, proxy_port).start { |http|
  # always proxy via your.proxy.addr:8080
}

See Net::HTTP.new for further details and examples such as proxies that require a username and password.

Compression

Net::HTTP automatically adds Accept-Encoding for compression of response bodies and automatically decompresses gzip and deflate responses unless a Range header was sent.

Compression can be disabled through the Accept-Encoding: identity header.

Constants

SSL_ATTRIBUTES
SSL_IVNAMES
STATUS_CODES

Attributes

proxy_address[R]

Address of proxy host. If Net::HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

proxy_pass[R]

User password for accessing proxy. If Net::HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

proxy_port[R]

Port number of proxy host. If Net::HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

proxy_user[R]

User name for accessing proxy. If Net::HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

address[R]

The DNS host name or IP address to connect to.

ca_file[RW]

Sets path of a CA certification file in PEM format.

The file can contain several CA certificates.

ca_path[RW]

Sets path of a CA certification directory containing certifications in PEM format.

cert[RW]

Sets an OpenSSL::X509::Certificate object as client certificate. (This method is appeared in Michal Rokos’s OpenSSL extension).

cert_store[RW]

Sets the X509::Store to verify peer certificate.

ciphers[RW]

Sets the available ciphers. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#ciphers=

close_on_empty_response[RW]
continue_timeout[R]

Seconds to wait for 100 Continue response. If the HTTP object does not receive a response in this many seconds it sends the request body. The default value is nil.

extra_chain_cert[RW]

Sets the extra X509 certificates to be added to the certificate chain. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#extra_chain_cert=

ignore_eof[RW]

Whether to ignore EOF when reading response bodies with defined Content-Length headers. For backwards compatibility, the default is true.

keep_alive_timeout[RW]

Seconds to reuse the connection of the previous request. If the idle time is less than this Keep-Alive Timeout, Net::HTTP reuses the TCP/IP socket used by the previous communication. The default value is 2 seconds.

key[RW]

Sets an OpenSSL::PKey::RSA or OpenSSL::PKey::DSA object. (This method is appeared in Michal Rokos’s OpenSSL extension.)

local_host[RW]

The local host used to establish the connection.

local_port[RW]

The local port used to establish the connection.

max_retries[R]
max_version[RW]

Sets the maximum SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#max_version=

min_version[RW]

Sets the minimum SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#min_version=

open_timeout[RW]

Number of seconds to wait for the connection to open. Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot open a connection in this many seconds, it raises a Net::OpenTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds.

port[R]

The port number to connect to.

proxy_address[W]
proxy_from_env[W]
proxy_pass[W]
proxy_port[W]
proxy_user[W]
read_timeout[R]

Number of seconds to wait for one block to be read (via one read(2) call). Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot read data in this many seconds, it raises a Net::ReadTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds.

response_body_encoding[R]

The encoding to use for the response body. If Encoding, uses the specified encoding. If other true value, tries to detect the response body encoding.

ssl_timeout[RW]

Sets the SSL timeout seconds.

ssl_version[RW]

Sets the SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#ssl_version=

verify_callback[RW]

Sets the verify callback for the server certification verification.

verify_depth[RW]

Sets the maximum depth for the certificate chain verification.

verify_hostname[RW]

Sets to check the server certificate is valid for the hostname. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#verify_hostname=

verify_mode[RW]

Sets the flags for server the certification verification at beginning of SSL/TLS session.

OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE or OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER are acceptable.

write_timeout[R]

Number of seconds to wait for one block to be written (via one write(2) call). Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot write data in this many seconds, it raises a Net::WriteTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds. Net::WriteTimeout is not raised on Windows.

Public Class Methods

Proxy(p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil) click to toggle source

Creates an HTTP proxy class which behaves like Net::HTTP, but performs all access via the specified proxy.

This class is obsolete. You may pass these same parameters directly to Net::HTTP.new. See Net::HTTP.new for details of the arguments.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1163
def HTTP.Proxy(p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil)
  return self unless p_addr

  Class.new(self) {
    @is_proxy_class = true

    if p_addr == :ENV then
      @proxy_from_env = true
      @proxy_address = nil
      @proxy_port    = nil
    else
      @proxy_from_env = false
      @proxy_address = p_addr
      @proxy_port    = p_port || default_port
    end

    @proxy_user = p_user
    @proxy_pass = p_pass
  }
end
default_port() click to toggle source

The default port to use for HTTP requests; defaults to 80.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 532
def HTTP.default_port
  http_default_port()
end
Net::HTTP.get(hostname, path, port = 80) → body click to toggle source
Net::HTTP:get(uri, headers = {}, port = uri.port) → body

Sends a GET request and returns the HTTP response body as a string.

With string arguments hostname and path:

hostname = 'jsonplaceholder.typicode.com'
path = '/todos/1'
puts Net::HTTP.get(hostname, path)

Output:

{
  "userId": 1,
  "id": 1,
  "title": "delectus aut autem",
  "completed": false
}

With URI object uri and optional hash argument headers:

uri = URI('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos/1')
headers = {'Content-type' => 'application/json; charset=UTF-8'}
Net::HTTP.get(uri, headers)
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 455
def HTTP.get(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)
  get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers, port).body
end
Net::HTTP.get_print(hostname, path, port = 80) → nil click to toggle source
Net::HTTP:get_print(uri, headers = {}, port = uri.port) → nil

Like Net::HTTP.get, but writes the returned body to $stdout; returns nil.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 419
def HTTP.get_print(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)
  get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers, port) {|res|
    res.read_body do |chunk|
      $stdout.print chunk
    end
  }
  nil
end
Net::HTTP.get_response(hostname, path, port = 80) → http_response click to toggle source
Net::HTTP:get_response(uri, headers = {}, port = uri.port) → http_response

Like Net::HTTP.get, but returns an Net::HTTPResponse object instead of the body string.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 465
def HTTP.get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil, &block)
  if path_or_headers && !path_or_headers.is_a?(Hash)
    host = uri_or_host
    path = path_or_headers
    new(host, port || HTTP.default_port).start {|http|
      return http.request_get(path, &block)
    }
  else
    uri = uri_or_host
    headers = path_or_headers
    start(uri.hostname, uri.port,
          :use_ssl => uri.scheme == 'https') {|http|
      return http.request_get(uri, headers, &block)
    }
  end
end
http_default_port() click to toggle source

The default port to use for HTTP requests; defaults to 80.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 537
def HTTP.http_default_port
  80
end
https_default_port() click to toggle source

The default port to use for HTTPS requests; defaults to 443.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 542
def HTTP.https_default_port
  443
end
is_version_1_2?()
Alias for: version_1_2?
new(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, p_no_proxy = nil) click to toggle source

Creates a new Net::HTTP object without opening a TCP connection or HTTP session.

The address should be a DNS hostname or IP address, the port is the port the server operates on. If no port is given the default port for HTTP or HTTPS is used.

If none of the p_ arguments are given, the proxy host and port are taken from the http_proxy environment variable (or its uppercase equivalent) if present. If the proxy requires authentication you must supply it by hand. See URI::Generic#find_proxy for details of proxy detection from the environment. To disable proxy detection set p_addr to nil.

If you are connecting to a custom proxy, p_addr specifies the DNS name or IP address of the proxy host, p_port the port to use to access the proxy, p_user and p_pass the username and password if authorization is required to use the proxy, and p_no_proxy hosts which do not use the proxy.

Calls superclass method
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 671
def HTTP.new(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, p_no_proxy = nil)
  http = super address, port

  if proxy_class? then # from Net::HTTP::Proxy()
    http.proxy_from_env = @proxy_from_env
    http.proxy_address  = @proxy_address
    http.proxy_port     = @proxy_port
    http.proxy_user     = @proxy_user
    http.proxy_pass     = @proxy_pass
  elsif p_addr == :ENV then
    http.proxy_from_env = true
  else
    if p_addr && p_no_proxy && !URI::Generic.use_proxy?(p_addr, p_addr, p_port, p_no_proxy)
      p_addr = nil
      p_port = nil
    end
    http.proxy_address = p_addr
    http.proxy_port    = p_port || default_port
    http.proxy_user    = p_user
    http.proxy_pass    = p_pass
  end

  http
end
Also aliased as: newobj
new(address, port = nil) click to toggle source

Creates a new Net::HTTP object for the specified server address, without opening the TCP connection or initializing the HTTP session. The address should be a DNS hostname or IP address.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 699
def initialize(address, port = nil)
  @address = address
  @port    = (port || HTTP.default_port)
  @ipaddr = nil
  @local_host = nil
  @local_port = nil
  @curr_http_version = HTTPVersion
  @keep_alive_timeout = 2
  @last_communicated = nil
  @close_on_empty_response = false
  @socket  = nil
  @started = false
  @open_timeout = 60
  @read_timeout = 60
  @write_timeout = 60
  @continue_timeout = nil
  @max_retries = 1
  @debug_output = nil
  @response_body_encoding = false
  @ignore_eof = true

  @proxy_from_env = false
  @proxy_uri      = nil
  @proxy_address  = nil
  @proxy_port     = nil
  @proxy_user     = nil
  @proxy_pass     = nil

  @use_ssl = false
  @ssl_context = nil
  @ssl_session = nil
  @sspi_enabled = false
  SSL_IVNAMES.each do |ivname|
    instance_variable_set ivname, nil
  end
end
newobj(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, p_no_proxy = nil)
Alias for: new
post(url, data, header = nil) click to toggle source

Posts data to the specified URI object.

Example:

require 'net/http'
require 'uri'

Net::HTTP.post URI('http://www.example.com/api/search'),
               { "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }.to_json,
               "Content-Type" => "application/json"
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 493
def HTTP.post(url, data, header = nil)
  start(url.hostname, url.port,
        :use_ssl => url.scheme == 'https' ) {|http|
    http.post(url, data, header)
  }
end
post_form(url, params) click to toggle source

Posts HTML form data to the specified URI object. The form data must be provided as a Hash mapping from String to String. Example:

{ "cmd" => "search", "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }

This method also does Basic Authentication if and only if url.user exists. But userinfo for authentication is deprecated (RFC3986). So this feature will be removed.

Example:

require 'net/http'

Net::HTTP.post_form URI('http://www.example.com/search.cgi'),
                    { "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 517
def HTTP.post_form(url, params)
  req = Post.new(url)
  req.form_data = params
  req.basic_auth url.user, url.password if url.user
  start(url.hostname, url.port,
        :use_ssl => url.scheme == 'https' ) {|http|
    http.request(req)
  }
end
proxy_class?() click to toggle source

returns true if self is a class which was created by HTTP::Proxy.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1186
def proxy_class?
  defined?(@is_proxy_class) ? @is_proxy_class : false
end
start(address, port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass) {|http| ... } click to toggle source
start(address, port=nil, p_addr=:ENV, p_port=nil, p_user=nil, p_pass=nil, opt) {|http| ... }
Creates a new \Net::HTTP object,
opens a TCP connection and \HTTP session.

Argument address is the hostname or IP address of the server.

With a block given:

  • Passes the object to the given block, which may make any number of requests to the host.

  • Closes the HTTP session on block exit.

  • Returns the block’s value.

Example:

hostname = 'jsonplaceholder.typicode.com'
Net::HTTP.start(hostname) do |http|
  puts http.get('/todos/1').body
  puts http.get('/todos/2').body
end

Output:

{
  "userId": 1,
  "id": 1,
  "title": "delectus aut autem",
  "completed": false
}
{
  "userId": 1,
  "id": 2,
  "title": "quis ut nam facilis et officia qui",
  "completed": false
}

With no block given, returns the Net::HTTP object; the caller should call finish to close the session.

Other arguments:

  • port: Server port number.

  • p_addr: Proxy address.

  • p_port: Proxy port.

  • p_user: Proxy user name.

  • p_pass: Proxy password.

  • opts: Optional options hash.

The options hash opts sets certain values, where each key is a method or accessor to be called, and its value is the value to be set.

The keys may include:

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 625
def HTTP.start(address, *arg, &block) # :yield: +http+
  arg.pop if opt = Hash.try_convert(arg[-1])
  port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass = *arg
  p_addr = :ENV if arg.size < 2
  port = https_default_port if !port && opt && opt[:use_ssl]
  http = new(address, port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass)
  http.ipaddr = opt[:ipaddr] if opt && opt[:ipaddr]

  if opt
    if opt[:use_ssl]
      opt = {verify_mode: OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER}.update(opt)
    end
    http.methods.grep(/\A(\w+)=\z/) do |meth|
      key = $1.to_sym
      opt.key?(key) or next
      http.__send__(meth, opt[key])
    end
  end

  http.start(&block)
end
version_1_2() click to toggle source

Returns true; retained for compatibility.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 394
def HTTP.version_1_2
  true
end
version_1_2?() click to toggle source

Returns true; retained for compatibility.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 399
def HTTP.version_1_2?
  true
end
Also aliased as: is_version_1_2?

Public Instance Methods

active?()
Alias for: started?
continue_timeout=(sec) click to toggle source

Setter for the continue_timeout attribute.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 848
def continue_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.continue_timeout = sec if @socket
  @continue_timeout = sec
end
copy(path, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a COPY request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1448
def copy(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Copy.new(path, initheader))
end
delete(path, initheader = {'Depth' => 'Infinity'}) click to toggle source

Sends a DELETE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1436
def delete(path, initheader = {'Depth' => 'Infinity'})
  request(Delete.new(path, initheader))
end
finish() click to toggle source

Finishes the HTTP session and closes the TCP connection. Raises IOError if the session has not been started.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1132
def finish
  raise IOError, 'HTTP session not yet started' unless started?
  do_finish
end
get(path, initheader = nil, dest = nil) { |body_segment| ... } click to toggle source

Retrieves data from path on the connected-to host which may be an absolute path String or a URI to extract the path from.

initheader must be a Hash like { ‘Accept’ => ‘/’, … }, and it defaults to an empty hash. If initheader doesn’t have the key ‘accept-encoding’, then a value of “gzip;q=1.0,deflate;q=0.6,identity;q=0.3” is used, so that gzip compression is used in preference to deflate compression, which is used in preference to no compression. Ruby doesn’t have libraries to support the compress (Lempel-Ziv) compression, so that is not supported. The intent of this is to reduce bandwidth by default. If this routine sets up compression, then it does the decompression also, removing the header as well to prevent confusion. Otherwise it leaves the body as it found it.

This method returns a Net::HTTPResponse object.

If called with a block, yields each fragment of the entity body in turn as a string as it is read from the socket. Note that in this case, the returned response object will not contain a (meaningful) body.

dest argument is obsolete. It still works but you must not use it.

This method never raises an exception.

response = http.get('/index.html')

# using block
File.open('result.txt', 'w') {|f|
  http.get('/~foo/') do |str|
    f.write str
  end
}
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1336
def get(path, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: +body_segment+
  res = nil
  request(Get.new(path, initheader)) {|r|
    r.read_body dest, &block
    res = r
  }
  res
end
get2(path, initheader = nil)
Alias for: request_get
head(path, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Gets only the header from path on the connected-to host. header is a Hash like { ‘Accept’ => ‘/’, … }.

This method returns a Net::HTTPResponse object.

This method never raises an exception.

response = nil
Net::HTTP.start('some.www.server', 80) {|http|
  response = http.head('/index.html')
}
p response['content-type']
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1358
def head(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Head.new(path, initheader))
end
head2(path, initheader = nil, &block)
Alias for: request_head
inspect() click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 736
def inspect
  "#<#{self.class} #{@address}:#{@port} open=#{started?}>"
end
ipaddr() click to toggle source

The IP address to connect to/used to connect to

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 785
def ipaddr
  started? ?  @socket.io.peeraddr[3] : @ipaddr
end
ipaddr=(addr) click to toggle source

Set the IP address to connect to

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 790
def ipaddr=(addr)
  raise IOError, "ipaddr value changed, but session already started" if started?
  @ipaddr = addr
end
lock(path, body, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a LOCK request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1412
def lock(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Lock.new(path, initheader), body)
end
max_retries=(retries) click to toggle source

Maximum number of times to retry an idempotent request in case of Net::ReadTimeout, IOError, EOFError, Errno::ECONNRESET, Errno::ECONNABORTED, Errno::EPIPE, OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError, Timeout::Error. Should be a non-negative integer number. Zero means no retries. The default value is 1.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 820
def max_retries=(retries)
  retries = retries.to_int
  if retries < 0
    raise ArgumentError, 'max_retries should be non-negative integer number'
  end
  @max_retries = retries
end
mkcol(path, body = nil, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a MKCOL request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1454
def mkcol(path, body = nil, initheader = nil)
  request(Mkcol.new(path, initheader), body)
end
move(path, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a MOVE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1442
def move(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Move.new(path, initheader))
end
options(path, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a OPTIONS request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1424
def options(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Options.new(path, initheader))
end
patch(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil) { |body_segment| ... } click to toggle source

Sends a PATCH request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1396
def patch(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: +body_segment+
  send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, Patch, &block)
end
peer_cert() click to toggle source

Returns the X.509 certificates the server presented.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 980
def peer_cert
  if not use_ssl? or not @socket
    return nil
  end
  @socket.io.peer_cert
end
post(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil) { |body_segment| ... } click to toggle source

Posts data (must be a String) to path. header must be a Hash like { ‘Accept’ => ‘/’, … }.

This method returns a Net::HTTPResponse object.

If called with a block, yields each fragment of the entity body in turn as a string as it is read from the socket. Note that in this case, the returned response object will not contain a (meaningful) body.

dest argument is obsolete. It still works but you must not use it.

This method never raises exception.

response = http.post('/cgi-bin/search.rb', 'query=foo')

# using block
File.open('result.txt', 'w') {|f|
  http.post('/cgi-bin/search.rb', 'query=foo') do |str|
    f.write str
  end
}

You should set Content-Type: header field for POST. If no Content-Type: field given, this method uses “application/x-www-form-urlencoded” by default.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1390
def post(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: +body_segment+
  send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, Post, &block)
end
post2(path, data, initheader = nil)
Alias for: request_post
propfind(path, body = nil, initheader = {'Depth' => '0'}) click to toggle source

Sends a PROPFIND request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1430
def propfind(path, body = nil, initheader = {'Depth' => '0'})
  request(Propfind.new(path, initheader), body)
end
proppatch(path, body, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a PROPPATCH request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1406
def proppatch(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Proppatch.new(path, initheader), body)
end
proxy?() click to toggle source

True if requests for this connection will be proxied

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1205
def proxy?
  !!(@proxy_from_env ? proxy_uri : @proxy_address)
end
proxy_address() click to toggle source

The address of the proxy server, if one is configured.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1224
def proxy_address
  if @proxy_from_env then
    proxy_uri&.hostname
  else
    @proxy_address
  end
end
Also aliased as: proxyaddr
proxy_from_env?() click to toggle source

True if the proxy for this connection is determined from the environment

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1210
def proxy_from_env?
  @proxy_from_env
end
proxy_pass() click to toggle source

The password of the proxy server, if one is configured.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1252
def proxy_pass
  if @proxy_from_env
    pass = proxy_uri&.password
    unescape(pass) if pass
  else
    @proxy_pass
  end
end
proxy_port() click to toggle source

The port of the proxy server, if one is configured.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1233
def proxy_port
  if @proxy_from_env then
    proxy_uri&.port
  else
    @proxy_port
  end
end
Also aliased as: proxyport
proxy_user() click to toggle source

The username of the proxy server, if one is configured.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1242
def proxy_user
  if @proxy_from_env
    user = proxy_uri&.user
    unescape(user) if user
  else
    @proxy_user
  end
end
proxyaddr()
Alias for: proxy_address
proxyport()
Alias for: proxy_port
read_timeout=(sec) click to toggle source

Setter for the read_timeout attribute.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 831
def read_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.read_timeout = sec if @socket
  @read_timeout = sec
end
request(req, body = nil) { |response| ... } click to toggle source

Sends an HTTPRequest object req to the HTTP server.

If req is a Net::HTTP::Post or Net::HTTP::Put request containing data, the data is also sent. Providing data for a Net::HTTP::Head or Net::HTTP::Get request results in an ArgumentError.

Returns an HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, passes an HTTPResponse object to the block. The body of the response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

This method never raises Net::* exceptions.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1578
def request(req, body = nil, &block)  # :yield: +response+
  unless started?
    start {
      req['connection'] ||= 'close'
      return request(req, body, &block)
    }
  end
  if proxy_user()
    req.proxy_basic_auth proxy_user(), proxy_pass() unless use_ssl?
  end
  req.set_body_internal body
  res = transport_request(req, &block)
  if sspi_auth?(res)
    sspi_auth(req)
    res = transport_request(req, &block)
  end
  res
end
request_get(path, initheader = nil) { |response| ... } click to toggle source

Sends a GET request to the path. Returns the response as a Net::HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, passes an HTTPResponse object to the block. The body of the response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net::* exceptions.

response = http.request_get('/index.html')
# The entity body is already read in this case.
p response['content-type']
puts response.body

# Using a block
http.request_get('/index.html') {|response|
  p response['content-type']
  response.read_body do |str|   # read body now
    print str
  end
}
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1489
def request_get(path, initheader = nil, &block) # :yield: +response+
  request(Get.new(path, initheader), &block)
end
Also aliased as: get2
request_head(path, initheader = nil, &block) click to toggle source

Sends a HEAD request to the path and returns the response as a Net::HTTPResponse object.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net::* exceptions.

response = http.request_head('/index.html')
p response['content-type']
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1503
def request_head(path, initheader = nil, &block)
  request(Head.new(path, initheader), &block)
end
Also aliased as: head2
request_post(path, data, initheader = nil) { |response| ... } click to toggle source

Sends a POST request to the path.

Returns the response as a Net::HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, the block is passed an HTTPResponse object. The body of that response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net::* exceptions.

# example
response = http.request_post('/cgi-bin/nice.rb', 'datadatadata...')
p response.status
puts response.body          # body is already read in this case

# using block
http.request_post('/cgi-bin/nice.rb', 'datadatadata...') {|response|
  p response.status
  p response['content-type']
  response.read_body do |str|   # read body now
    print str
  end
}
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1533
def request_post(path, data, initheader = nil, &block) # :yield: +response+
  request Post.new(path, initheader), data, &block
end
Also aliased as: post2
response_body_encoding=(value) click to toggle source

Set the encoding to use for the response body. If given a String, find the related Encoding.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 773
def response_body_encoding=(value)
  value = Encoding.find(value) if value.is_a?(String)
  @response_body_encoding = value
end
send_request(name, path, data = nil, header = nil) click to toggle source

Sends an HTTP request to the HTTP server. Also sends a DATA string if data is given.

Returns a Net::HTTPResponse object.

This method never raises Net::* exceptions.

response = http.send_request('GET', '/index.html')
puts response.body
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1557
def send_request(name, path, data = nil, header = nil)
  has_response_body = name != 'HEAD'
  r = HTTPGenericRequest.new(name,(data ? true : false),has_response_body,path,header)
  request r, data
end
set_debug_output(output) click to toggle source

WARNING This method opens a serious security hole. Never use this method in production code.

Sets an output stream for debugging.

http = Net::HTTP.new(hostname)
http.set_debug_output $stderr
http.start { .... }
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 749
def set_debug_output(output)
  warn 'Net::HTTP#set_debug_output called after HTTP started', uplevel: 1 if started?
  @debug_output = output
end
start() { |http| ... } click to toggle source

Opens a TCP connection and HTTP session.

When this method is called with a block, it passes the Net::HTTP object to the block, and closes the TCP connection and HTTP session after the block has been executed.

When called with a block, it returns the return value of the block; otherwise, it returns self.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 996
def start  # :yield: http
  raise IOError, 'HTTP session already opened' if @started
  if block_given?
    begin
      do_start
      return yield(self)
    ensure
      do_finish
    end
  end
  do_start
  self
end
started?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the HTTP session has been started.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 864
def started?
  @started
end
Also aliased as: active?
trace(path, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a TRACE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1460
def trace(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Trace.new(path, initheader))
end
unlock(path, body, initheader = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a UNLOCK request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1418
def unlock(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Unlock.new(path, initheader), body)
end
use_ssl=(flag) click to toggle source

Turn on/off SSL. This flag must be set before starting session. If you change use_ssl value after session started, a Net::HTTP object raises IOError.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 881
def use_ssl=(flag)
  flag = flag ? true : false
  if started? and @use_ssl != flag
    raise IOError, "use_ssl value changed, but session already started"
  end
  @use_ssl = flag
end
use_ssl?() click to toggle source

Returns true if SSL/TLS is being used with HTTP.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 873
def use_ssl?
  @use_ssl
end
write_timeout=(sec) click to toggle source

Setter for the write_timeout attribute.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 837
def write_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.write_timeout = sec if @socket
  @write_timeout = sec
end

Private Instance Methods

D(msg)
Alias for: debug
addr_port() click to toggle source

utils

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1747
def addr_port
  addr = address
  addr = "[#{addr}]" if addr.include?(":")
  default_port = use_ssl? ? HTTP.https_default_port : HTTP.http_default_port
  default_port == port ? addr : "#{addr}:#{port}"
end
begin_transport(req) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1664
def begin_transport(req)
  if @socket.closed?
    connect
  elsif @last_communicated
    if @last_communicated + @keep_alive_timeout < Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
      debug 'Conn close because of keep_alive_timeout'
      @socket.close
      connect
    elsif @socket.io.to_io.wait_readable(0) && @socket.eof?
      debug "Conn close because of EOF"
      @socket.close
      connect
    end
  end

  if not req.response_body_permitted? and @close_on_empty_response
    req['connection'] ||= 'close'
  end

  req.update_uri address, port, use_ssl?
  req['host'] ||= addr_port()
end
connect() click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1016
def connect
  if use_ssl?
    # reference early to load OpenSSL before connecting,
    # as OpenSSL may take time to load.
    @ssl_context = OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext.new
  end

  if proxy? then
    conn_addr = proxy_address
    conn_port = proxy_port
  else
    conn_addr = conn_address
    conn_port = port
  end

  debug "opening connection to #{conn_addr}:#{conn_port}..."
  s = Timeout.timeout(@open_timeout, Net::OpenTimeout) {
    begin
      TCPSocket.open(conn_addr, conn_port, @local_host, @local_port)
    rescue => e
      raise e, "Failed to open TCP connection to " +
        "#{conn_addr}:#{conn_port} (#{e.message})"
    end
  }
  s.setsockopt(Socket::IPPROTO_TCP, Socket::TCP_NODELAY, 1)
  debug "opened"
  if use_ssl?
    if proxy?
      plain_sock = BufferedIO.new(s, read_timeout: @read_timeout,
                                  write_timeout: @write_timeout,
                                  continue_timeout: @continue_timeout,
                                  debug_output: @debug_output)
      buf = "CONNECT #{conn_address}:#{@port} HTTP/#{HTTPVersion}\r\n"
      buf << "Host: #{@address}:#{@port}\r\n"
      if proxy_user
        credential = ["#{proxy_user}:#{proxy_pass}"].pack('m0')
        buf << "Proxy-Authorization: Basic #{credential}\r\n"
      end
      buf << "\r\n"
      plain_sock.write(buf)
      HTTPResponse.read_new(plain_sock).value
      # assuming nothing left in buffers after successful CONNECT response
    end

    ssl_parameters = Hash.new
    iv_list = instance_variables
    SSL_IVNAMES.each_with_index do |ivname, i|
      if iv_list.include?(ivname)
        value = instance_variable_get(ivname)
        unless value.nil?
          ssl_parameters[SSL_ATTRIBUTES[i]] = value
        end
      end
    end
    @ssl_context.set_params(ssl_parameters)
    unless @ssl_context.session_cache_mode.nil? # a dummy method on JRuby
      @ssl_context.session_cache_mode =
          OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext::SESSION_CACHE_CLIENT |
              OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext::SESSION_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE
    end
    if @ssl_context.respond_to?(:session_new_cb) # not implemented under JRuby
      @ssl_context.session_new_cb = proc {|sock, sess| @ssl_session = sess }
    end

    # Still do the post_connection_check below even if connecting
    # to IP address
    verify_hostname = @ssl_context.verify_hostname

    # Server Name Indication (SNI) RFC 3546/6066
    case @address
    when Resolv::IPv4::Regex, Resolv::IPv6::Regex
      # don't set SNI, as IP addresses in SNI is not valid
      # per RFC 6066, section 3.

      # Avoid openssl warning
      @ssl_context.verify_hostname = false
    else
      ssl_host_address = @address
    end

    debug "starting SSL for #{conn_addr}:#{conn_port}..."
    s = OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket.new(s, @ssl_context)
    s.sync_close = true
    s.hostname = ssl_host_address if s.respond_to?(:hostname=) && ssl_host_address

    if @ssl_session and
       Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_REALTIME) < @ssl_session.time.to_f + @ssl_session.timeout
      s.session = @ssl_session
    end
    ssl_socket_connect(s, @open_timeout)
    if (@ssl_context.verify_mode != OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE) && verify_hostname
      s.post_connection_check(@address)
    end
    debug "SSL established, protocol: #{s.ssl_version}, cipher: #{s.cipher[0]}"
  end
  @socket = BufferedIO.new(s, read_timeout: @read_timeout,
                           write_timeout: @write_timeout,
                           continue_timeout: @continue_timeout,
                           debug_output: @debug_output)
  @last_communicated = nil
  on_connect
rescue => exception
  if s
    debug "Conn close because of connect error #{exception}"
    s.close
  end
  raise
end
debug(msg) click to toggle source

Adds a message to debugging output

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1755
def debug(msg)
  return unless @debug_output
  @debug_output << msg
  @debug_output << "\n"
end
Also aliased as: D
do_finish() click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1137
def do_finish
  @started = false
  @socket.close if @socket
  @socket = nil
end
do_start() click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1010
def do_start
  connect
  @started = true
end
edit_path(path) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1281
def edit_path(path)
  if proxy?
    if path.start_with?("ftp://") || use_ssl?
      path
    else
      "http://#{addr_port}#{path}"
    end
  else
    path
  end
end
end_transport(req, res) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1687
def end_transport(req, res)
  @curr_http_version = res.http_version
  @last_communicated = nil
  if @socket.closed?
    debug 'Conn socket closed'
  elsif not res.body and @close_on_empty_response
    debug 'Conn close'
    @socket.close
  elsif keep_alive?(req, res)
    debug 'Conn keep-alive'
    @last_communicated = Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
  else
    debug 'Conn close'
    @socket.close
  end
end
keep_alive?(req, res) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1704
def keep_alive?(req, res)
  return false if req.connection_close?
  if @curr_http_version <= '1.0'
    res.connection_keep_alive?
  else   # HTTP/1.1 or later
    not res.connection_close?
  end
end
on_connect() click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1126
def on_connect
end
send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, type, &block) click to toggle source

Executes a request which uses a representation and returns its body.

# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1601
def send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, type, &block)
  res = nil
  request(type.new(path, initheader), data) {|r|
    r.read_body dest, &block
    res = r
  }
  res
end
sspi_auth(req) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1728
def sspi_auth(req)
  n = Win32::SSPI::NegotiateAuth.new
  req["Proxy-Authorization"] = "Negotiate #{n.get_initial_token}"
  # Some versions of ISA will close the connection if this isn't present.
  req["Connection"] = "Keep-Alive"
  req["Proxy-Connection"] = "Keep-Alive"
  res = transport_request(req)
  authphrase = res["Proxy-Authenticate"]  or return res
  req["Proxy-Authorization"] = "Negotiate #{n.complete_authentication(authphrase)}"
rescue => err
  raise HTTPAuthenticationError.new('HTTP authentication failed', err)
end
sspi_auth?(res) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1713
def sspi_auth?(res)
  return false unless @sspi_enabled
  if res.kind_of?(HTTPProxyAuthenticationRequired) and
      proxy? and res["Proxy-Authenticate"].include?("Negotiate")
    begin
      require 'win32/sspi'
      true
    rescue LoadError
      false
    end
  else
    false
  end
end
transport_request(req) { |res| ... } click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1612
def transport_request(req)
  count = 0
  begin
    begin_transport req
    res = catch(:response) {
      begin
        req.exec @socket, @curr_http_version, edit_path(req.path)
      rescue Errno::EPIPE
        # Failure when writing full request, but we can probably
        # still read the received response.
      end

      begin
        res = HTTPResponse.read_new(@socket)
        res.decode_content = req.decode_content
        res.body_encoding = @response_body_encoding
        res.ignore_eof = @ignore_eof
      end while res.kind_of?(HTTPInformation)

      res.uri = req.uri

      res
    }
    res.reading_body(@socket, req.response_body_permitted?) {
      yield res if block_given?
    }
  rescue Net::OpenTimeout
    raise
  rescue Net::ReadTimeout, IOError, EOFError,
         Errno::ECONNRESET, Errno::ECONNABORTED, Errno::EPIPE, Errno::ETIMEDOUT,
         # avoid a dependency on OpenSSL
         defined?(OpenSSL::SSL) ? OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError : IOError,
         Timeout::Error => exception
    if count < max_retries && IDEMPOTENT_METHODS_.include?(req.method)
      count += 1
      @socket.close if @socket
      debug "Conn close because of error #{exception}, and retry"
      retry
    end
    debug "Conn close because of error #{exception}"
    @socket.close if @socket
    raise
  end

  end_transport req, res
  res
rescue => exception
  debug "Conn close because of error #{exception}"
  @socket.close if @socket
  raise exception
end
unescape(value) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/http.rb, line 1266
def unescape(value)
  require 'cgi/util'
  CGI.unescape(value)
end