module Bundler

Bundler provides a consistent environment for Ruby projects by tracking and installing the exact gems and versions that are needed.

Since Ruby 2.6, Bundler is a part of Ruby's standard library.

Bunder is used by creating gemfiles listing all the project dependencies and (optionally) their versions and then using

require 'bundler/setup'

or Bundler.setup to setup environment where only specified gems and their specified versions could be used.

See Bundler website for extensive documentation on gemfiles creation and Bundler usage.

As a standard library inside project, Bundler could be used for introspection of loaded and required modules.

Constants

ORIGINAL_ENV
SUDO_MUTEX

Public Class Methods

app_cache(custom_path = nil) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 300
def app_cache(custom_path = nil)
  path = custom_path || root
  Pathname.new(path).join(settings.app_cache_path)
end
app_config_path() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 286
def app_config_path
  if app_config = ENV["BUNDLE_APP_CONFIG"]
    app_config_pathname = Pathname.new(app_config)

    if app_config_pathname.absolute?
      app_config_pathname
    else
      app_config_pathname.expand_path(root)
    end
  else
    root.join(".bundle")
  end
end
bin_path() click to toggle source

Returns absolute location of where binstubs are installed to.

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 103
def bin_path
  @bin_path ||= begin
    path = settings[:bin] || "bin"
    path = Pathname.new(path).expand_path(root).expand_path
    SharedHelpers.filesystem_access(path) {|p| FileUtils.mkdir_p(p) }
    path
  end
end
bundle_path() click to toggle source

Returns absolute path of where gems are installed on the filesystem.

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 94
def bundle_path
  @bundle_path ||= Pathname.new(configured_bundle_path.path).expand_path(root)
end
clean_env() click to toggle source

@deprecated Use `unbundled_env` instead

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 334
def clean_env
  Bundler::SharedHelpers.major_deprecation(
    2,
    "`Bundler.clean_env` has been deprecated in favor of `Bundler.unbundled_env`. " \
    "If you instead want the environment before bundler was originally loaded, use `Bundler.original_env`",
    :print_caller_location => true
  )

  unbundled_env
end
clean_exec(*args) click to toggle source

@deprecated Use `unbundled_exec` instead

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 418
def clean_exec(*args)
  Bundler::SharedHelpers.major_deprecation(
    2,
    "`Bundler.clean_exec` has been deprecated in favor of `Bundler.unbundled_exec`. " \
    "If you instead want to exec to a command in the environment before bundler was originally loaded, use `Bundler.original_exec`",
    :print_caller_location => true
  )

  with_env(unbundled_env) { Kernel.exec(*args) }
end
clean_system(*args) click to toggle source

@deprecated Use `unbundled_system` instead

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 396
def clean_system(*args)
  Bundler::SharedHelpers.major_deprecation(
    2,
    "`Bundler.clean_system` has been deprecated in favor of `Bundler.unbundled_system`. " \
    "If you instead want to run the command in the environment before bundler was originally loaded, use `Bundler.original_system`",
    :print_caller_location => true
  )

  with_env(unbundled_env) { Kernel.system(*args) }
end
clear_gemspec_cache() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 583
def clear_gemspec_cache
  @gemspec_cache = {}
end
configure() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 80
def configure
  @configured ||= configure_gem_home_and_path
end
configured_bundle_path() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 98
def configured_bundle_path
  @configured_bundle_path ||= settings.path.tap(&:validate!)
end
default_bundle_dir() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 447
def default_bundle_dir
  SharedHelpers.default_bundle_dir
end
default_gemfile() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 439
def default_gemfile
  SharedHelpers.default_gemfile
end
default_lockfile() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 443
def default_lockfile
  SharedHelpers.default_lockfile
end
definition(unlock = nil) click to toggle source

Returns an instance of Bundler::Definition for given Gemfile and lockfile

@param unlock [Hash, Boolean, nil] Gems that have been requested

to be updated or true if all gems should be updated

@return [Bundler::Definition]

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 191
def definition(unlock = nil)
  @definition = nil if unlock
  @definition ||= begin
    configure
    Definition.build(default_gemfile, default_lockfile, unlock)
  end
end
environment() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 181
def environment
  SharedHelpers.major_deprecation 2, "Bundler.environment has been removed in favor of Bundler.load", :print_caller_location => true
  load
end
feature_flag() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 592
def feature_flag
  @feature_flag ||= FeatureFlag.new(VERSION)
end
frozen_bundle?() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 199
def frozen_bundle?
  frozen = settings[:deployment]
  frozen ||= settings[:frozen] unless feature_flag.deployment_means_frozen?
  frozen
end
git_present?() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 587
def git_present?
  return @git_present if defined?(@git_present)
  @git_present = Bundler.which("git") || Bundler.which("git.exe")
end
home() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 264
def home
  bundle_path.join("bundler")
end
install_path() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 268
def install_path
  home.join("gems")
end
load() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 177
def load
  @load ||= Runtime.new(root, definition)
end
load_gemspec(file, validate = false) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 556
def load_gemspec(file, validate = false)
  @gemspec_cache ||= {}
  key = File.expand_path(file)
  @gemspec_cache[key] ||= load_gemspec_uncached(file, validate)
  # Protect against caching side-effected gemspecs by returning a
  # new instance each time.
  @gemspec_cache[key].dup if @gemspec_cache[key]
end
load_gemspec_uncached(file, validate = false) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 565
def load_gemspec_uncached(file, validate = false)
  path = Pathname.new(file)
  contents = read_file(file)
  spec = if contents.start_with?("---") # YAML header
    eval_yaml_gemspec(path, contents)
  else
    # Eval the gemspec from its parent directory, because some gemspecs
    # depend on "./" relative paths.
    SharedHelpers.chdir(path.dirname.to_s) do
      eval_gemspec(path, contents)
    end
  end
  return unless spec
  spec.loaded_from = path.expand_path.to_s
  Bundler.rubygems.validate(spec) if validate
  spec
end
load_marshal(data) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 550
def load_marshal(data)
  Marshal.load(data)
rescue StandardError => e
  raise MarshalError, "#{e.class}: #{e.message}"
end
local_platform() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 434
def local_platform
  return Gem::Platform::RUBY if settings[:force_ruby_platform]
  Gem::Platform.local
end
locked_gems() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 205
def locked_gems
  @locked_gems ||=
    if defined?(@definition) && @definition
      definition.locked_gems
    elsif Bundler.default_lockfile.file?
      lock = Bundler.read_file(Bundler.default_lockfile)
      LockfileParser.new(lock)
    end
end
mkdir_p(path, options = {}) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 496
def mkdir_p(path, options = {})
  if requires_sudo? && !options[:no_sudo]
    sudo "mkdir -p '#{path}'" unless File.exist?(path)
  else
    SharedHelpers.filesystem_access(path, :write) do |p|
      FileUtils.mkdir_p(p)
    end
  end
end
original_env() click to toggle source

@return [Hash] Environment present before Bundler was activated

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 329
def original_env
  ORIGINAL_ENV.clone
end
original_exec(*args) click to toggle source

Run a `Kernel.exec` to a subcommand with the environment present before Bundler was activated

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 413
def original_exec(*args)
  with_original_env { Kernel.exec(*args) }
end
original_system(*args) click to toggle source

Run subcommand with the environment present before Bundler was activated

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 391
def original_system(*args)
  with_original_env { Kernel.system(*args) }
end
preferred_gemfile_name() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 460
def preferred_gemfile_name
  Bundler.settings[:init_gems_rb] ? "gems.rb" : "Gemfile"
end
read_file(file) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 544
def read_file(file)
  SharedHelpers.filesystem_access(file, :read) do
    File.open(file, "r:UTF-8", &:read)
  end
end
require(*groups) click to toggle source

Setups Bundler environment (see Bundler.setup) if it is not already set, and loads all gems from groups specified. Unlike ::setup, can be called multiple times with different groups (if they were allowed by setup).

Assuming Gemfile

gem 'first_gem', '= 1.0'
group :test do
  gem 'second_gem', '= 1.0'
end

The code will work as follows:

Bundler.setup # allow all groups
Bundler.require(:default) # requires only first_gem
# ...later
Bundler.require(:test)   # requires second_gem
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 173
def require(*groups)
  setup(*groups).require(*groups)
end
requires_sudo?() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 468
def requires_sudo?
  return @requires_sudo if defined?(@requires_sudo_ran)

  sudo_present = which "sudo" if settings.allow_sudo?

  if sudo_present
    # the bundle path and subdirectories need to be writable for RubyGems
    # to be able to unpack and install gems without exploding
    path = bundle_path
    path = path.parent until path.exist?

    # bins are written to a different location on OS X
    bin_dir = Pathname.new(Bundler.system_bindir)
    bin_dir = bin_dir.parent until bin_dir.exist?

    # if any directory is not writable, we need sudo
    files = [path, bin_dir] | Dir[bundle_path.join("build_info/*").to_s] | Dir[bundle_path.join("*").to_s]
    unwritable_files = files.reject {|f| File.writable?(f) }
    sudo_needed = !unwritable_files.empty?
    if sudo_needed
      Bundler.ui.warn "Following files may not be writable, so sudo is needed:\n  #{unwritable_files.map(&:to_s).sort.join("\n  ")}"
    end
  end

  @requires_sudo_ran = true
  @requires_sudo = settings.allow_sudo? && sudo_present && sudo_needed
end
reset!() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 596
def reset!
  reset_paths!
  Plugin.reset!
  reset_rubygems!
end
reset_paths!() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 602
def reset_paths!
  @bin_path = nil
  @bundler_major_version = nil
  @bundle_path = nil
  @configured = nil
  @configured_bundle_path = nil
  @definition = nil
  @load = nil
  @locked_gems = nil
  @root = nil
  @settings = nil
  @setup = nil
  @user_home = nil
end
reset_rubygems!() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 617
def reset_rubygems!
  return unless defined?(@rubygems) && @rubygems
  rubygems.undo_replacements
  rubygems.reset
  @rubygems = nil
end
rm_rf(path) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 310
    def rm_rf(path)
      FileUtils.remove_entry_secure(path) if path && File.exist?(path)
    rescue ArgumentError
      message = <<EOF
It is a security vulnerability to allow your home directory to be world-writable, and bundler can not continue.
You should probably consider fixing this issue by running `chmod o-w ~` on *nix.
Please refer to https://ruby-doc.org/stdlib-2.1.2/libdoc/fileutils/rdoc/FileUtils.html#method-c-remove_entry_secure for details.
EOF
      File.world_writable?(path) ? Bundler.ui.warn(message) : raise
      raise PathError, "Please fix the world-writable issue with your #{path} directory"
    end
root() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 276
def root
  @root ||= begin
              SharedHelpers.root
            rescue GemfileNotFound
              bundle_dir = default_bundle_dir
              raise GemfileNotFound, "Could not locate Gemfile or .bundle/ directory" unless bundle_dir
              Pathname.new(File.expand_path("..", bundle_dir))
            end
end
ruby_scope() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 215
def ruby_scope
  "#{Bundler.rubygems.ruby_engine}/#{RbConfig::CONFIG["ruby_version"]}"
end
settings() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 322
def settings
  @settings ||= Settings.new(app_config_path)
rescue GemfileNotFound
  @settings = Settings.new(Pathname.new(".bundle").expand_path)
end
setup(*groups) click to toggle source

Turns on the Bundler runtime. After Bundler.setup call, all load or require of the gems would be allowed only if they are part of the Gemfile or Ruby's standard library. If the versions specified in Gemfile, only those versions would be loaded.

Assuming Gemfile

gem 'first_gem', '= 1.0'
group :test do
  gem 'second_gem', '= 1.0'
end

The code using Bundler.setup works as follows:

require 'third_gem' # allowed, required from global gems
require 'first_gem' # allowed, loads the last installed version
Bundler.setup
require 'fourth_gem' # fails with LoadError
require 'second_gem' # loads exactly version 1.0

Bundler.setup can be called only once, all subsequent calls are no-op.

If groups list is provided, only gems from specified groups would be allowed (gems specified outside groups belong to special :default group).

To require all gems from Gemfile (or only some groups), see Bundler.require.

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 139
def setup(*groups)
  # Return if all groups are already loaded
  return @setup if defined?(@setup) && @setup

  definition.validate_runtime!

  SharedHelpers.print_major_deprecations!

  if groups.empty?
    # Load all groups, but only once
    @setup = load.setup
  else
    load.setup(*groups)
  end
end
specs_path() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 272
def specs_path
  bundle_path.join("specifications")
end
sudo(str) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 519
    def sudo(str)
      SUDO_MUTEX.synchronize do
        prompt = "\n\n" + <<-PROMPT.gsub(/^ {6}/, "").strip + " "
        Your user account isn't allowed to install to the system RubyGems.
        You can cancel this installation and run:

            bundle config set --local path 'vendor/bundle'
            bundle install

        to install the gems into ./vendor/bundle/, or you can enter your password
        and install the bundled gems to RubyGems using sudo.

        Password:
        PROMPT

        unless @prompted_for_sudo ||= system(%(sudo -k -p "#{prompt}" true))
          raise SudoNotPermittedError,
            "Bundler requires sudo access to install at the moment. " \
            "Try installing again, granting Bundler sudo access when prompted, or installing into a different path."
        end

        `sudo -p "#{prompt}" #{str}`
      end
    end
system_bindir() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 451
def system_bindir
  # Gem.bindir doesn't always return the location that RubyGems will install
  # system binaries. If you put '-n foo' in your .gemrc, RubyGems will
  # install binstubs there instead. Unfortunately, RubyGems doesn't expose
  # that directory at all, so rather than parse .gemrc ourselves, we allow
  # the directory to be set as well, via `bundle config set bindir foo`.
  Bundler.settings[:system_bindir] || Bundler.rubygems.gem_bindir
end
tmp(name = Process.pid.to_s) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 305
def tmp(name = Process.pid.to_s)
  Kernel.send(:require, "tmpdir")
  Pathname.new(Dir.mktmpdir(["bundler", name]))
end
ui() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 84
def ui
  (defined?(@ui) && @ui) || (self.ui = UI::Shell.new)
end
ui=(ui) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 88
def ui=(ui)
  Bundler.rubygems.ui = UI::RGProxy.new(ui)
  @ui = ui
end
unbundled_env() click to toggle source

@return [Hash] Environment with all bundler-related variables removed

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 346
def unbundled_env
  env = original_env

  if env.key?("BUNDLER_ORIG_MANPATH")
    env["MANPATH"] = env["BUNDLER_ORIG_MANPATH"]
  end

  env.delete_if {|k, _| k[0, 7] == "BUNDLE_" }

  if env.key?("RUBYOPT")
    env["RUBYOPT"] = env["RUBYOPT"].sub "-rbundler/setup", ""
  end

  if env.key?("RUBYLIB")
    rubylib = env["RUBYLIB"].split(File::PATH_SEPARATOR)
    rubylib.delete(File.expand_path("..", __FILE__))
    env["RUBYLIB"] = rubylib.join(File::PATH_SEPARATOR)
  end

  env
end
unbundled_exec(*args) click to toggle source

Run a `Kernel.exec` to a subcommand in an environment with all bundler related variables removed

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 430
def unbundled_exec(*args)
  with_env(unbundled_env) { Kernel.exec(*args) }
end
unbundled_system(*args) click to toggle source

Run subcommand in an environment with all bundler related variables removed

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 408
def unbundled_system(*args)
  with_unbundled_env { Kernel.system(*args) }
end
use_system_gems?() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 464
def use_system_gems?
  configured_bundle_path.use_system_gems?
end
user_bundle_path(dir = "home") click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 242
def user_bundle_path(dir = "home")
  env_var, fallback = case dir
                      when "home"
                        ["BUNDLE_USER_HOME", proc { Pathname.new(user_home).join(".bundle") }]
                      when "cache"
                        ["BUNDLE_USER_CACHE", proc { user_bundle_path.join("cache") }]
                      when "config"
                        ["BUNDLE_USER_CONFIG", proc { user_bundle_path.join("config") }]
                      when "plugin"
                        ["BUNDLE_USER_PLUGIN", proc { user_bundle_path.join("plugin") }]
                      else
                        raise BundlerError, "Unknown user path requested: #{dir}"
  end
  # `fallback` will already be a Pathname, but Pathname.new() is
  # idempotent so it's OK
  Pathname.new(ENV.fetch(env_var, &fallback))
end
user_cache() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 260
def user_cache
  user_bundle_path("cache")
end
user_home() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 219
def user_home
  @user_home ||= begin
    home = Bundler.rubygems.user_home
    bundle_home = home ? File.join(home, ".bundle") : nil

    warning = if home.nil?
      "Your home directory is not set."
    elsif !File.directory?(home)
      "`#{home}` is not a directory."
    elsif !File.writable?(home) && (!File.directory?(bundle_home) || !File.writable?(bundle_home))
      "`#{home}` is not writable."
    end

    if warning
      user_home = tmp_home_path(warning)
      Bundler.ui.warn "#{warning}\nBundler will use `#{user_home}' as your home directory temporarily.\n"
      user_home
    else
      Pathname.new(home)
    end
  end
end
which(executable) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 506
def which(executable)
  if File.file?(executable) && File.executable?(executable)
    executable
  elsif paths = ENV["PATH"]
    quote = '"'.freeze
    paths.split(File::PATH_SEPARATOR).find do |path|
      path = path[1..-2] if path.start_with?(quote) && path.end_with?(quote)
      executable_path = File.expand_path(executable, path)
      return executable_path if File.file?(executable_path) && File.executable?(executable_path)
    end
  end
end
with_clean_env() { || ... } click to toggle source

@deprecated Use `with_unbundled_env` instead

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 374
def with_clean_env
  Bundler::SharedHelpers.major_deprecation(
    2,
    "`Bundler.with_clean_env` has been deprecated in favor of `Bundler.with_unbundled_env`. " \
    "If you instead want the environment before bundler was originally loaded, use `Bundler.with_original_env`",
    :print_caller_location => true
  )

  with_env(unbundled_env) { yield }
end
with_original_env() { || ... } click to toggle source

Run block with environment present before Bundler was activated

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 369
def with_original_env
  with_env(original_env) { yield }
end
with_unbundled_env() { || ... } click to toggle source

Run block with all bundler-related variables removed

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 386
def with_unbundled_env
  with_env(unbundled_env) { yield }
end

Private Class Methods

configure_gem_home() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 668
def configure_gem_home
  Bundler::SharedHelpers.set_env "GEM_HOME", File.expand_path(bundle_path, root)
  Bundler.rubygems.clear_paths
end
configure_gem_home_and_path() click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 648
def configure_gem_home_and_path
  configure_gem_path
  configure_gem_home
  bundle_path
end
configure_gem_path(env = ENV) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 654
def configure_gem_path(env = ENV)
  blank_home = env["GEM_HOME"].nil? || env["GEM_HOME"].empty?
  if !use_system_gems?
    # this needs to be empty string to cause
    # PathSupport.split_gem_path to only load up the
    # Bundler --path setting as the GEM_PATH.
    env["GEM_PATH"] = ""
  elsif blank_home
    possibles = [Bundler.rubygems.gem_dir, Bundler.rubygems.gem_path]
    paths = possibles.flatten.compact.uniq.reject(&:empty?)
    env["GEM_PATH"] = paths.join(File::PATH_SEPARATOR)
  end
end
eval_gemspec(path, contents) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 636
def eval_gemspec(path, contents)
  eval(contents, TOPLEVEL_BINDING.dup, path.expand_path.to_s)
rescue ScriptError, StandardError => e
  msg = "There was an error while loading `#{path.basename}`: #{e.message}"

  if e.is_a?(LoadError)
    msg += "\nDoes it try to require a relative path? That's been removed in Ruby 1.9"
  end

  raise GemspecError, Dsl::DSLError.new(msg, path, e.backtrace, contents)
end
eval_yaml_gemspec(path, contents) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 626
def eval_yaml_gemspec(path, contents)
  require_relative "bundler/psyched_yaml"

  # If the YAML is invalid, Syck raises an ArgumentError, and Psych
  # raises a Psych::SyntaxError. See psyched_yaml.rb for more info.
  Gem::Specification.from_yaml(contents)
rescue YamlLibrarySyntaxError, ArgumentError, Gem::EndOfYAMLException, Gem::Exception
  eval_gemspec(path, contents)
end
tmp_home_path(warning) click to toggle source
# File lib/bundler.rb, line 673
def tmp_home_path(warning)
  Kernel.send(:require, "tmpdir")
  SharedHelpers.filesystem_access(Dir.tmpdir) do
    path = Bundler.tmp
    at_exit { Bundler.rm_rf(path) }
    path
  end
rescue RuntimeError => e
  raise e.exception("#{warning}\nBundler also failed to create a temporary home directory':\n#{e}")
end
with_env(env) { || ... } click to toggle source

@param env [Hash]

# File lib/bundler.rb, line 685
def with_env(env)
  backup = ENV.to_hash
  ENV.replace(env)
  yield
ensure
  ENV.replace(backup)
end