module URI

URI is a module providing classes to handle Uniform Resource Identifiers (RFC2396)

Features

Basic example

require 'uri'

uri = URI("http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413")
#=> #<URI::HTTP:0x00000000b14880
      URL:http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413>
uri.scheme
#=> "http"
uri.host
#=> "foo.com"
uri.path
#=> "/posts"
uri.query
#=> "id=30&limit=5"
uri.fragment
#=> "time=1305298413"

uri.to_s
#=> "http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413"

Adding custom URIs

module URI
  class RSYNC < Generic
    DEFAULT_PORT = 873
  end
  @@schemes['RSYNC'] = RSYNC
end
#=> URI::RSYNC

URI.scheme_list
#=> {"FTP"=>URI::FTP, "HTTP"=>URI::HTTP, "HTTPS"=>URI::HTTPS,
     "LDAP"=>URI::LDAP, "LDAPS"=>URI::LDAPS, "MAILTO"=>URI::MailTo,
     "RSYNC"=>URI::RSYNC}

uri = URI("rsync://rsync.foo.com")
#=> #<URI::RSYNC:0x00000000f648c8 URL:rsync://rsync.foo.com>

RFC References

A good place to view an RFC spec is www.ietf.org/rfc.html

Here is a list of all related RFC's.

Class tree

Copyright Info

Author

Akira Yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org>

Documentation

Akira Yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org> Dmitry V. Sabanin <sdmitry@lrn.ru> Vincent Batts <vbatts@hashbangbash.com>

License

Copyright © 2001 akira yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org> You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same term as Ruby.

Revision

$Id$

Constants

DEFAULT_PARSER

URI::Parser.new

Parser
REGEXP
RFC3986_PARSER

Public Class Methods

decode_www_form(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8, separator: '&', use__charset_: false, isindex: false) click to toggle source

Decode URL-encoded form data from given str.

This decodes application/x-www-form-urlencoded data and returns array of key-value array.

This refers url.spec.whatwg.org/#concept-urlencoded-parser , so this supports only &-separator, don't support ;-separator.

ary = URI.decode_www_form("a=1&a=2&b=3")
p ary                  #=> [['a', '1'], ['a', '2'], ['b', '3']]
p ary.assoc('a').last  #=> '1'
p ary.assoc('b').last  #=> '3'
p ary.rassoc('a').last #=> '2'
p Hash[ary]            # => {"a"=>"2", "b"=>"3"}

See ::decode_www_form_component, ::encode_www_form

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 453
def self.decode_www_form(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8, separator: '&', use__charset_: false, isindex: false)
  raise ArgumentError, "the input of #{self.name}.#{__method__} must be ASCII only string" unless str.ascii_only?
  ary = []
  return ary if str.empty?
  enc = Encoding.find(enc)
  str.b.each_line(separator) do |string|
    string.chomp!(separator)
    key, sep, val = string.partition('=')
    if isindex
      if sep.empty?
        val = key
        key = ''
      end
      isindex = false
    end

    if use__charset_ and key == '_charset_' and e = get_encoding(val)
      enc = e
      use__charset_ = false
    end

    key.gsub!(/\+|%\h\h/, TBLDECWWWCOMP_)
    if val
      val.gsub!(/\+|%\h\h/, TBLDECWWWCOMP_)
    else
      val = ''
    end

    ary << [key, val]
  end
  ary.each do |k, v|
    k.force_encoding(enc)
    k.scrub!
    v.force_encoding(enc)
    v.scrub!
  end
  ary
end
decode_www_form_component(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8) click to toggle source

Decode given str of URL-encoded form data.

This decodes + to SP.

See ::encode_www_form_component, ::decode_www_form

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 385
def self.decode_www_form_component(str, enc=Encoding::UTF_8)
  raise ArgumentError, "invalid %-encoding (#{str})" if /%(?!\h\h)/ =~ str
  str.b.gsub(/\+|%\h\h/, TBLDECWWWCOMP_).force_encoding(enc)
end
encode_www_form(enum, enc=nil) click to toggle source

Generate URL-encoded form data from given enum.

This generates application/x-www-form-urlencoded data defined in HTML5 from given an Enumerable object.

This internally uses ::encode_www_form_component.

This method doesn't convert the encoding of given items, so convert them before call this method if you want to send data as other than original encoding or mixed encoding data. (Strings which are encoded in an HTML5 ASCII incompatible encoding are converted to UTF-8.)

This method doesn't handle files. When you send a file, use multipart/form-data.

This refers url.spec.whatwg.org/#concept-urlencoded-serializer

URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["lang", "en"]])
#=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form("q" => "ruby", "lang" => "en")
#=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form("q" => ["ruby", "perl"], "lang" => "en")
#=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["q", "perl"], ["lang", "en"]])
#=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"

See ::encode_www_form_component, ::decode_www_form

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 417
def self.encode_www_form(enum, enc=nil)
  enum.map do |k,v|
    if v.nil?
      encode_www_form_component(k, enc)
    elsif v.respond_to?(:to_ary)
      v.to_ary.map do |w|
        str = encode_www_form_component(k, enc)
        unless w.nil?
          str << '='
          str << encode_www_form_component(w, enc)
        end
      end.join('&')
    else
      str = encode_www_form_component(k, enc)
      str << '='
      str << encode_www_form_component(v, enc)
    end
  end.join('&')
end
encode_www_form_component(str, enc=nil) click to toggle source

Encode given str to URL-encoded form data.

This method doesn't convert *, -, ., 0-9, A-Z, _, a-z, but does convert SP (ASCII space) to + and converts others to %XX.

If enc is given, convert str to the encoding before percent encoding.

This is an implementation of www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-html5-20130806/forms.html#url-encoded-form-data

See ::decode_www_form_component, ::encode_www_form

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 367
def self.encode_www_form_component(str, enc=nil)
  str = str.to_s.dup
  if str.encoding != Encoding::ASCII_8BIT
    if enc && enc != Encoding::ASCII_8BIT
      str.encode!(Encoding::UTF_8, invalid: :replace, undef: :replace)
      str.encode!(enc, fallback: ->(x){"&#{x.ord};"})
    end
    str.force_encoding(Encoding::ASCII_8BIT)
  end
  str.gsub!(/[^*\-.0-9A-Z_a-z]/, TBLENCWWWCOMP_)
  str.force_encoding(Encoding::US_ASCII)
end
extract(str, schemes = nil, &block) click to toggle source

Synopsis

URI::extract(str[, schemes][,&blk])

Args

str

String to extract URIs from.

schemes

Limit URI matching to a specific schemes.

Description

Extracts URIs from a string. If block given, iterates through all matched URIs. Returns nil if block given or array with matches.

Usage

require "uri"

URI.extract("text here http://foo.example.org/bla and here mailto:test@example.com and here also.")
# => ["http://foo.example.com/bla", "mailto:test@example.com"]
# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 295
def self.extract(str, schemes = nil, &block)
  warn "#{caller(1)[0]}: warning: URI.extract is obsolete" if $VERBOSE
  DEFAULT_PARSER.extract(str, schemes, &block)
end
join(*str) click to toggle source

Synopsis

URI::join(str[, str, ...])

Args

str

String(s) to work with, will be converted to RFC3986 URIs before merging.

Description

Joins URIs.

Usage

require 'uri'

p URI.join("http://example.com/","main.rbx")
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x2022ac02 URL:http://example.com/main.rbx>

p URI.join('http://example.com', 'foo')
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x01ab80a0 URL:http://example.com/foo>

p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', '/bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x01aaf0b0 URL:http://example.com/bar>

p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', 'bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x801a92af0 URL:http://example.com/bar>

p URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo/', 'bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x80135a3a0 URL:http://example.com/foo/bar>
# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 267
def self.join(*str)
  RFC3986_PARSER.join(*str)
end
parse(uri) click to toggle source

Synopsis

URI::parse(uri_str)

Args

uri_str

String with URI.

Description

Creates one of the URI's subclasses instance from the string.

Raises

URI::InvalidURIError

Raised if URI given is not a correct one.

Usage

require 'uri'

uri = URI.parse("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
p uri
# => #<URI::HTTP:0x202281be URL:http://www.ruby-lang.org/>
p uri.scheme
# => "http"
p uri.host
# => "www.ruby-lang.org"

It's recommended to first ::escape the provided uri_str if there are any invalid URI characters.

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 229
def self.parse(uri)
  RFC3986_PARSER.parse(uri)
end
regexp(schemes = nil) click to toggle source

Synopsis

URI::regexp([match_schemes])

Args

match_schemes

Array of schemes. If given, resulting regexp matches to URIs whose scheme is one of the match_schemes.

Description

Returns a Regexp object which matches to URI-like strings. The Regexp object returned by this method includes arbitrary number of capture group (parentheses). Never rely on it's number.

Usage

require 'uri'

# extract first URI from html_string
html_string.slice(URI.regexp)

# remove ftp URIs
html_string.sub(URI.regexp(['ftp'])

# You should not rely on the number of parentheses
html_string.scan(URI.regexp) do |*matches|
  p $&
end
# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 331
def self.regexp(schemes = nil)
  warn "#{caller(1)[0]}: warning: URI.regexp is obsolete" if $VERBOSE
  DEFAULT_PARSER.make_regexp(schemes)
end
scheme_list() click to toggle source

Returns a Hash of the defined schemes

# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 139
def self.scheme_list
  @@schemes
end
split(uri) click to toggle source

Synopsis

URI::split(uri)

Args

uri

String with URI.

Description

Splits the string on following parts and returns array with result:

* Scheme
* Userinfo
* Host
* Port
* Registry
* Path
* Opaque
* Query
* Fragment

Usage

require 'uri'

p URI.split("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
# => ["http", nil, "www.ruby-lang.org", nil, nil, "/", nil, nil, nil]
# File lib/uri/common.rb, line 191
def self.split(uri)
  RFC3986_PARSER.split(uri)
end