module Gem

RubyGems is the Ruby standard for publishing and managing third party libraries.

For user documentation, see:

For gem developer documentation see:

Further RubyGems documentation can be found at:

RubyGems Plugins

As of RubyGems 1.3.2, RubyGems will load plugins installed in gems or $LOAD_PATH. Plugins must be named 'rubygems_plugin' (.rb, .so, etc) and placed at the root of your gem's require_path. Plugins are discovered via Gem::find_files and then loaded.

For an example plugin, see the Graph gem which adds a `gem graph` command.

RubyGems Defaults, Packaging

RubyGems defaults are stored in lib/rubygems/defaults.rb. If you're packaging RubyGems or implementing Ruby you can change RubyGems' defaults.

For RubyGems packagers, provide lib/rubygems/defaults/operating_system.rb and override any defaults from lib/rubygems/defaults.rb.

For Ruby implementers, provide lib/rubygems/defaults/#{RUBY_ENGINE}.rb and override any defaults from lib/rubygems/defaults.rb.

If you need RubyGems to perform extra work on install or uninstall, your defaults override file can set pre/post install and uninstall hooks. See Gem::pre_install, Gem::pre_uninstall, Gem::post_install, Gem::post_uninstall.

Bugs

You can submit bugs to the RubyGems bug tracker on GitHub

Credits

RubyGems is currently maintained by Eric Hodel.

RubyGems was originally developed at RubyConf 2003 by:

Contributors:

(If your name is missing, PLEASE let us know!)

License

See LICENSE.txt for permissions.

Thanks!

-The RubyGems Team

Constants

DEFAULT_HOST
GEM_DEP_FILES
LOADED_SPECS_MUTEX
MARSHAL_SPEC_DIR

Location of Marshal quick gemspecs on remote repositories

RDoc

Gem::RDoc provides methods to generate RDoc and ri data for installed gems upon gem installation.

This file is automatically required by RubyGems 1.9 and newer.

READ_BINARY_ERRORS

Exception classes used in a Gem.read_binary rescue statement. Not all of these are defined in Ruby 1.8.7, hence the need for this convoluted setup.

REPOSITORY_DEFAULT_GEM_SUBDIRECTORIES

Subdirectories in a gem repository for default gems

REPOSITORY_SUBDIRECTORIES

Subdirectories in a gem repository

RUBYGEMS_DIR
VERSION
WIN_PATTERNS

An Array of Regexps that match windows Ruby platforms.

WRITE_BINARY_ERRORS

Exception classes used in Gem.write_binary rescue statement. Not all of these are defined in Ruby 1.8.7.

Attributes

done_installing_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::DependencyInstaller installs a set of gems

gemdeps[R]

GemDependencyAPI object, which is set when .use_gemdeps is called. This contains all the information from the Gemfile.

loaded_specs[R]

Hash of loaded Gem::Specification keyed by name

post_build_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Installer#install extracts files and builds extensions

post_install_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Installer#install completes installation

post_reset_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Specification.reset is run.

post_uninstall_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run after Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall completes installation

pre_install_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Installer#install does any work

pre_reset_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Specification.reset is run.

pre_uninstall_hooks[R]

The list of hooks to be run before Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall does any work

Public Class Methods

bin_path(name, exec_name = nil, *requirements) click to toggle source

Find the full path to the executable for gem name. If the exec_name is not given, an exception will be raised, otherwise the specified executable's path is returned. requirements allows you to specify specific gem versions.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 253
def self.bin_path(name, exec_name = nil, *requirements)
  # TODO: fails test_self_bin_path_bin_file_gone_in_latest
  # Gem::Specification.find_by_name(name, *requirements).bin_file exec_name

  raise ArgumentError, "you must supply exec_name" unless exec_name

  requirements = Gem::Requirement.default if
    requirements.empty?

  find_spec_for_exe(name, exec_name, requirements).bin_file exec_name
end
binary_mode() click to toggle source

The mode needed to read a file as straight binary.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 313
def self.binary_mode
  'rb'
end
bindir(install_dir=Gem.dir) click to toggle source

The path where gem executables are to be installed.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 320
def self.bindir(install_dir=Gem.dir)
  return File.join install_dir, 'bin' unless
    install_dir.to_s == Gem.default_dir.to_s
  Gem.default_bindir
end
clear_default_specs() click to toggle source

Clear default gem related variables. It is for test

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1300
def clear_default_specs
  @path_to_default_spec_map.clear
end
clear_paths() click to toggle source

Reset the dir and path values. The next time dir or path is requested, the values will be calculated from scratch. This is mainly used by the unit tests to provide test isolation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 331
def self.clear_paths
  @paths         = nil
  @user_home     = nil
  Gem::Specification.reset
  Gem::Security.reset if defined?(Gem::Security)
end
config_file() click to toggle source

The path to standard location of the user's .gemrc file.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 341
def self.config_file
  @config_file ||= File.join Gem.user_home, '.gemrc'
end
configuration() click to toggle source

The standard configuration object for gems.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 348
def self.configuration
  @configuration ||= Gem::ConfigFile.new []
end
configuration=(config) click to toggle source

Use the given configuration object (which implements the ConfigFile protocol) as the standard configuration object.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 356
def self.configuration=(config)
  @configuration = config
end
datadir(gem_name) click to toggle source

The path to the data directory specified by the gem name. If the package is not available as a gem, return nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 364
def self.datadir(gem_name)
  spec = @loaded_specs[gem_name]
  return nil if spec.nil?
  spec.datadir
end
default_bindir() click to toggle source

The default directory for binaries

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 117
def self.default_bindir
  if defined? RUBY_FRAMEWORK_VERSION  # mac framework support
    '/usr/bin'
  else # generic install
    RbConfig::CONFIG['bindir']
  end
end
default_cert_path() click to toggle source

The default signing certificate chain path

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 146
def self.default_cert_path
  File.join Gem.user_home, ".gem", "gem-public_cert.pem"
end
default_dir() click to toggle source

Default home directory path to be used if an alternate value is not specified in the environment

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 30
def self.default_dir
  path = if defined? RUBY_FRAMEWORK_VERSION
           [
             File.dirname(RbConfig::CONFIG['sitedir']),
             'Gems',
             RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version']
           ]
         elsif RbConfig::CONFIG['rubylibprefix']
           [
             RbConfig::CONFIG['rubylibprefix'],
             'gems',
             RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version']
           ]
         else
           [
             RbConfig::CONFIG['libdir'],
             ruby_engine,
             'gems',
             RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version']
           ]
         end

  @default_dir ||= File.join(*path)
end
default_exec_format() click to toggle source

Deduce Ruby's –program-prefix and –program-suffix from its install name

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 103
def self.default_exec_format
  exec_format = RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_install_name'].sub('ruby', '%s') rescue '%s'

  unless exec_format =~ /%s/
    raise Gem::Exception,
      "[BUG] invalid exec_format #{exec_format.inspect}, no %s"
  end

  exec_format
end
default_ext_dir_for(base_dir) click to toggle source

Returns binary extensions dir for specified RubyGems base dir or nil if such directory cannot be determined.

By default, the binary extensions are located side by side with their Ruby counterparts, therefore nil is returned

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 62
def self.default_ext_dir_for(base_dir)
  nil
end
default_gems_use_full_paths?() click to toggle source

Whether to expect full paths in default gems - true for non-MRI ruby implementations

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 153
def self.default_gems_use_full_paths?
  ruby_engine != 'ruby'
end
default_key_path() click to toggle source

The default signing key path

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 139
def self.default_key_path
  File.join Gem.user_home, ".gem", "gem-private_key.pem"
end
default_path() click to toggle source

Default gem load path

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 92
def self.default_path
  path = []
  path << user_dir if user_home && File.exist?(user_home)
  path << default_dir
  path << vendor_dir if vendor_dir and File.directory? vendor_dir
  path
end
default_rubygems_dirs() click to toggle source

Paths where RubyGems' .rb files and bin files are installed

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 69
def self.default_rubygems_dirs
  nil # default to standard layout
end
default_sources() click to toggle source

An Array of the default sources that come with RubyGems

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 14
def self.default_sources
  %w[https://rubygems.org/]
end
default_spec_cache_dir() click to toggle source

Default spec directory path to be used if an alternate value is not specified in the environment

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 22
def self.default_spec_cache_dir
  File.join Gem.user_home, '.gem', 'specs'
end
deflate(data) click to toggle source

A Zlib::Deflate.deflate wrapper

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 373
def self.deflate(data)
  require 'zlib'
  Zlib::Deflate.deflate data
end
detect_gemdeps(path = nil)

TODO remove with RubyGems 4.0

Alias for: use_gemdeps
dir() click to toggle source

The path where gems are to be installed.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 423
def self.dir
  paths.home
end
done_installing(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a post-installs hook that will be passed a Gem::DependencyInstaller and a list of installed specifications when Gem::DependencyInstaller#install is complete

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 788
def self.done_installing(&hook)
  @done_installing_hooks << hook
end
ensure_default_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil) click to toggle source

Quietly ensure the Gem directory dir contains all the proper subdirectories for handling default gems. If we can't create a directory due to a permission problem, then we will silently continue.

If mode is given, missing directories are created with this mode.

World-writable directories will never be created.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 457
def self.ensure_default_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil)
  ensure_subdirectories(dir, mode, REPOSITORY_DEFAULT_GEM_SUBDIRECTORIES)
end
ensure_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil) click to toggle source

Quietly ensure the Gem directory dir contains all the proper subdirectories. If we can't create a directory due to a permission problem, then we will silently continue.

If mode is given, missing directories are created with this mode.

World-writable directories will never be created.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 444
def self.ensure_gem_subdirectories(dir = Gem.dir, mode = nil)
  ensure_subdirectories(dir, mode, REPOSITORY_SUBDIRECTORIES)
end
env_requirement(gem_name) click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 920
def self.env_requirement(gem_name)
  @env_requirements_by_name ||= {}
  @env_requirements_by_name[gem_name] ||= begin
    req = ENV["GEM_REQUIREMENT_#{gem_name.upcase}"] || '>= 0'.freeze
    Gem::Requirement.create(req)
  end
end
find_files(glob, check_load_path=true) click to toggle source

Returns a list of paths matching glob that can be used by a gem to pick up features from other gems. For example:

Gem.find_files('rdoc/discover').each do |path| load path end

if check_load_path is true (the default), then find_files also searches $LOAD_PATH for files as well as gems.

Note that find_files will return all files even if they are from different versions of the same gem. See also find_latest_files

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 504
def self.find_files(glob, check_load_path=true)
  files = []

  files = find_files_from_load_path glob if check_load_path

  gem_specifications = @gemdeps ? Gem.loaded_specs.values : Gem::Specification.stubs

  files.concat gem_specifications.map { |spec|
    spec.matches_for_glob("#{glob}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}")
  }.flatten

  # $LOAD_PATH might contain duplicate entries or reference
  # the spec dirs directly, so we prune.
  files.uniq! if check_load_path

  return files
end
find_latest_files(glob, check_load_path=true) click to toggle source

Returns a list of paths matching glob from the latest gems that can be used by a gem to pick up features from other gems. For example:

Gem.find_latest_files('rdoc/discover').each do |path| load path end

if check_load_path is true (the default), then find_latest_files also searches $LOAD_PATH for files as well as gems.

Unlike find_files, find_latest_files will return only files from the latest version of a gem.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 541
def self.find_latest_files(glob, check_load_path=true)
  files = []

  files = find_files_from_load_path glob if check_load_path

  files.concat Gem::Specification.latest_specs(true).map { |spec|
    spec.matches_for_glob("#{glob}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}")
  }.flatten

  # $LOAD_PATH might contain duplicate entries or reference
  # the spec dirs directly, so we prune.
  files.uniq! if check_load_path

  return files
end
find_unresolved_default_spec(path) click to toggle source

Find a Gem::Specification of default gem from path

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1283
def find_unresolved_default_spec(path)
  @path_to_default_spec_map[path]
end
finish_resolve(request_set=Gem::RequestSet.new) click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 238
def self.finish_resolve(request_set=Gem::RequestSet.new)
  request_set.import Gem::Specification.unresolved_deps.values
  request_set.import Gem.loaded_specs.values.map {|s| Gem::Dependency.new(s.name, s.version) }

  request_set.resolve_current.each do |s|
    s.full_spec.activate
  end
end
gunzip(data) click to toggle source

Zlib::GzipReader wrapper that unzips data.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 591
def self.gunzip(data)
  Gem::Util.gunzip data
end
gzip(data) click to toggle source

Zlib::GzipWriter wrapper that zips data.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 605
def self.gzip(data)
  Gem::Util.gzip data
end
host() click to toggle source

Get the default RubyGems API host. This is normally https://rubygems.org.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 649
def self.host
  # TODO: move to utils
  @host ||= Gem::DEFAULT_HOST
end
host=(host) click to toggle source

Set the default RubyGems API host.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 656
def self.host=(host)
  # TODO: move to utils
  @host = host
end
inflate(data) click to toggle source

A Zlib::Inflate#inflate wrapper

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 619
def self.inflate(data)
  Gem::Util.inflate data
end
install(name, version = Gem::Requirement.default, *options) click to toggle source

Top level install helper method. Allows you to install gems interactively:

% irb
>> Gem.install "minitest"
Fetching: minitest-3.0.1.gem (100%)
=> [#<Gem::Specification:0x1013b4528 @name="minitest", ...>]
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 638
def self.install(name, version = Gem::Requirement.default, *options)
  require "rubygems/dependency_installer"
  inst = Gem::DependencyInstaller.new(*options)
  inst.install name, version
  inst.installed_gems
end
latest_rubygems_version() click to toggle source

Returns the latest release version of RubyGems.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 945
def self.latest_rubygems_version
  latest_version_for('rubygems-update') or
    raise "Can't find 'rubygems-update' in any repo. Check `gem source list`."
end
latest_spec_for(name) click to toggle source

Returns the latest release-version specification for the gem name.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 932
def self.latest_spec_for(name)
  dependency   = Gem::Dependency.new name
  fetcher      = Gem::SpecFetcher.fetcher
  spec_tuples, = fetcher.spec_for_dependency dependency

  spec, = spec_tuples.first

  spec
end
latest_version_for(name) click to toggle source

Returns the version of the latest release-version of gem name

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 953
def self.latest_version_for(name)
  spec = latest_spec_for name
  spec and spec.version
end
load_env_plugins() click to toggle source

Find all 'rubygems_plugin' files in $LOAD_PATH and load them

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1124
def self.load_env_plugins
  path = "rubygems_plugin"

  files = []
  glob = "#{path}#{Gem.suffix_pattern}"
  $LOAD_PATH.each do |load_path|
    globbed = Gem::Util.glob_files_in_dir(glob, load_path)

    globbed.each do |load_path_file|
      files << load_path_file if File.file?(load_path_file.untaint)
    end
  end

  load_plugin_files files
end
load_path_insert_index() click to toggle source

The index to insert activated gem paths into the $LOAD_PATH. The activated gem's paths are inserted before site lib directory by default.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 665
def self.load_path_insert_index
  $LOAD_PATH.each_with_index do |path, i|
    return i if path.instance_variable_defined?(:@gem_prelude_index)
  end

  index = $LOAD_PATH.index RbConfig::CONFIG['sitelibdir']

  index
end
load_plugins() click to toggle source

Find the 'rubygems_plugin' files in the latest installed gems and load them

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1112
def self.load_plugins
  # Remove this env var by at least 3.0
  if ENV['RUBYGEMS_LOAD_ALL_PLUGINS']
    load_plugin_files find_files('rubygems_plugin', false)
  else
    load_plugin_files find_latest_files('rubygems_plugin', false)
  end
end
load_yaml() click to toggle source

Loads YAML, preferring Psych

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 680
def self.load_yaml
  return if @yaml_loaded
  return unless defined?(gem)

  begin
    gem 'psych', '>= 2.0.0'
  rescue Gem::LoadError
    # It's OK if the user does not have the psych gem installed.  We will
    # attempt to require the stdlib version
  end

  begin
    # Try requiring the gem version *or* stdlib version of psych.
    require 'psych'
  rescue ::LoadError
    # If we can't load psych, thats fine, go on.
  else
    # If 'yaml' has already been required, then we have to
    # be sure to switch it over to the newly loaded psych.
    if defined?(YAML::ENGINE) && YAML::ENGINE.yamler != "psych"
      YAML::ENGINE.yamler = "psych"
    end

    require 'rubygems/psych_additions'
    require 'rubygems/psych_tree'
  end

  require 'yaml'
  require 'rubygems/safe_yaml'

  # Now that we're sure some kind of yaml library is loaded, pull
  # in our hack to deal with Syck's DefaultKey ugliness.
  require 'rubygems/syck_hack'

  @yaml_loaded = true
end
location_of_caller(depth = 1) click to toggle source

The file name and line number of the caller of the caller of this method.

depth is how many layers up the call stack it should go.

e.g.,

def a; Gem.location_of_caller; end a #=> [“x.rb”, 2] # (it'll vary depending on file name and line number)

def b; c; end def c; Gem.location_of_caller(2); end b #=> [“x.rb”, 6] # (it'll vary depending on file name and line number)

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 731
def self.location_of_caller(depth = 1)
  caller[depth] =~ /(.*?):(\d+).*?$/i
  file = $1
  lineno = $2.to_i

  [file, lineno]
end
marshal_version() click to toggle source

The version of the Marshal format for your Ruby.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 742
def self.marshal_version
  "#{Marshal::MAJOR_VERSION}.#{Marshal::MINOR_VERSION}"
end
needs() { |rs| ... } click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 230
def self.needs
  rs = Gem::RequestSet.new

  yield rs

  finish_resolve rs
end
operating_system_defaults() click to toggle source

Default options for gem commands for Ruby packagers.

The options here should be structured as an array of string “gem” command names as keys and a string of the default options as values.

Example:

def self.operating_system_defaults

{
    'install' => '--no-rdoc --no-ri --env-shebang',
    'update' => '--no-rdoc --no-ri --env-shebang'
}

end

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 193
def self.operating_system_defaults
  {}
end
path() click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 427
def self.path
  paths.path
end
path_separator() click to toggle source

How String Gem paths should be split. Overridable for esoteric platforms.

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 85
def self.path_separator
  File::PATH_SEPARATOR
end
paths() click to toggle source

Retrieve the PathSupport object that RubyGems uses to lookup files.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 381
def self.paths
  @paths ||= Gem::PathSupport.new(ENV)
end
paths=(env) click to toggle source

Initialize the filesystem paths to use from env. env is a hash-like object (typically ENV) that is queried for 'GEM_HOME', 'GEM_PATH', and 'GEM_SPEC_CACHE' Keys for the env hash should be Strings, and values of the hash should be Strings or nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 391
  def self.paths=(env)
    clear_paths
    target = {}
    env.each_pair do |k,v|
      case k
      when 'GEM_HOME', 'GEM_PATH', 'GEM_SPEC_CACHE'
        case v
        when nil, String
          target[k] = v
        when Array
          unless Gem::Deprecate.skip
            warn <<-eowarn
Array values in the parameter to `Gem.paths=` are deprecated.
Please use a String or nil.
An Array (#{env.inspect}) was passed in from #{caller[3]}
            eowarn
          end
          target[k] = v.join File::PATH_SEPARATOR
        end
      else
        target[k] = v
      end
    end
    @paths = Gem::PathSupport.new ENV.to_hash.merge(target)
    Gem::Specification.dirs = @paths.path
  end
platform_defaults() click to toggle source

Default options for gem commands for Ruby implementers.

The options here should be structured as an array of string “gem” command names as keys and a string of the default options as values.

Example:

def self.platform_defaults

{
    'install' => '--no-rdoc --no-ri --env-shebang',
    'update' => '--no-rdoc --no-ri --env-shebang'
}

end

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 212
def self.platform_defaults
  {}
end
platforms() click to toggle source

Array of platforms this RubyGems supports.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 756
def self.platforms
  @platforms ||= []
  if @platforms.empty?
    @platforms = [Gem::Platform::RUBY, Gem::Platform.local]
  end
  @platforms
end
platforms=(platforms) click to toggle source

Set array of platforms this RubyGems supports (primarily for testing).

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 749
def self.platforms=(platforms)
  @platforms = platforms
end
post_build(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a post-build hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called. The hook is called after the gem has been extracted and extensions have been built but before the executables or gemspec has been written. If the hook returns false then the gem's files will be removed and the install will be aborted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 771
def self.post_build(&hook)
  @post_build_hooks << hook
end
post_install(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a post-install hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 779
def self.post_install(&hook)
  @post_install_hooks << hook
end
post_reset(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a hook that will get run after Gem::Specification.reset is run.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 796
def self.post_reset(&hook)
  @post_reset_hooks << hook
end
post_uninstall(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a post-uninstall hook that will be passed a Gem::Uninstaller instance and the spec that was uninstalled when Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 805
def self.post_uninstall(&hook)
  @post_uninstall_hooks << hook
end
pre_install(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a pre-install hook that will be passed an Gem::Installer instance when Gem::Installer#install is called. If the hook returns false then the install will be aborted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 814
def self.pre_install(&hook)
  @pre_install_hooks << hook
end
pre_reset(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a hook that will get run before Gem::Specification.reset is run.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 822
def self.pre_reset(&hook)
  @pre_reset_hooks << hook
end
pre_uninstall(&hook) click to toggle source

Adds a pre-uninstall hook that will be passed an Gem::Uninstaller instance and the spec that will be uninstalled when Gem::Uninstaller#uninstall is called

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 831
def self.pre_uninstall(&hook)
  @pre_uninstall_hooks << hook
end
prefix() click to toggle source

The directory prefix this RubyGems was installed at. If your prefix is in a standard location (ie, rubygems is installed where you'd expect it to be), then prefix returns nil.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 840
def self.prefix
  prefix = File.dirname RUBYGEMS_DIR

  if prefix != File.expand_path(RbConfig::CONFIG['sitelibdir']) and
     prefix != File.expand_path(RbConfig::CONFIG['libdir']) and
     'lib' == File.basename(RUBYGEMS_DIR)
    prefix
  end
end
read_binary(path) click to toggle source

Safely read a file in binary mode on all platforms.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 860
def self.read_binary(path)
  File.open path, 'rb+' do |f|
    f.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
    f.read
  end
rescue *READ_BINARY_ERRORS
  File.open path, 'rb' do |f|
    f.read
  end
rescue Errno::ENOLCK # NFS
  if Thread.main != Thread.current
    raise
  else
    File.open path, 'rb' do |f|
      f.read
    end
  end
end
refresh() click to toggle source

Refresh available gems from disk.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 853
def self.refresh
  Gem::Specification.reset
end
register_default_spec(spec) click to toggle source

Register a Gem::Specification for default gem.

Two formats for the specification are supported:

  • MRI 2.0 style, where spec.files contains unprefixed require names. The spec's filenames will be registered as-is.

  • New style, where spec.files contains files prefixed with paths from spec.require_paths. The prefixes are stripped before registering the spec's filenames. Unprefixed files are omitted.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1259
def register_default_spec(spec)
  new_format = Gem.default_gems_use_full_paths? || spec.require_paths.any? {|path| spec.files.any? {|f| f.start_with? path } }

  if new_format
    prefix_group = spec.require_paths.map {|f| f + "/"}.join("|")
    prefix_pattern = /^(#{prefix_group})/
  end

  suffix_pattern = /#{Regexp.union(Gem.suffixes)}\z/

  spec.files.each do |file|
    if new_format
      file = file.sub(prefix_pattern, "")
      next unless $~
    end

    @path_to_default_spec_map[file] = spec
    @path_to_default_spec_map[file.sub(suffix_pattern, "")] = spec
  end
end
remove_unresolved_default_spec(spec) click to toggle source

Remove needless Gem::Specification of default gem from unresolved default gem list

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1291
def remove_unresolved_default_spec(spec)
  spec.files.each do |file|
    @path_to_default_spec_map.delete(file)
  end
end
ruby() click to toggle source

The path to the running Ruby interpreter.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 902
def self.ruby
  if @ruby.nil?
    @ruby = File.join(RbConfig::CONFIG['bindir'],
                      "#{RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_install_name']}#{RbConfig::CONFIG['EXEEXT']}")

    @ruby = "\"#{@ruby}\"" if @ruby =~ /\s/
  end

  @ruby
end
ruby=(ruby) click to toggle source

Allows setting path to Ruby. This method is available when requiring 'rubygems/test_case'

# File lib/rubygems/test_case.rb, line 81
def self.ruby=(ruby)
  @ruby = ruby
end
ruby_api_version() click to toggle source

Returns a String containing the API compatibility version of Ruby

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 916
def self.ruby_api_version
  @ruby_api_version ||= RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version'].dup
end
ruby_engine() click to toggle source

A wrapper around RUBY_ENGINE const that may not be defined

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 128
def self.ruby_engine
  if defined? RUBY_ENGINE
    RUBY_ENGINE
  else
    'ruby'
  end
end
ruby_version() click to toggle source

A Gem::Version for the currently running Ruby.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 961
def self.ruby_version
  return @ruby_version if defined? @ruby_version
  version = RUBY_VERSION.dup

  if defined?(RUBY_PATCHLEVEL) && RUBY_PATCHLEVEL != -1
    version << ".#{RUBY_PATCHLEVEL}"
  elsif defined?(RUBY_DESCRIPTION)
    if RUBY_ENGINE == "ruby"
      desc = RUBY_DESCRIPTION[/\Aruby #{Regexp.quote(RUBY_VERSION)}([^ ]+) /, 1]
    else
      desc = RUBY_DESCRIPTION[/\A#{RUBY_ENGINE} #{Regexp.quote(RUBY_ENGINE_VERSION)} \(#{RUBY_VERSION}([^ ]+)\) /, 1]
    end
    version << ".#{desc}" if desc
  end

  @ruby_version = Gem::Version.new version
end
rubygems_version() click to toggle source

A Gem::Version for the currently running RubyGems

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 982
def self.rubygems_version
  return @rubygems_version if defined? @rubygems_version
  @rubygems_version = Gem::Version.new Gem::VERSION
end
searcher=(searcher) click to toggle source

Allows setting the gem path searcher. This method is available when requiring 'rubygems/test_case'

# File lib/rubygems/test_case.rb, line 65
def self.searcher=(searcher)
  @searcher = searcher
end
sources() click to toggle source

Returns an Array of sources to fetch remote gems from. Uses default_sources if the sources list is empty.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 991
def self.sources
  source_list = configuration.sources || default_sources
  @sources ||= Gem::SourceList.from(source_list)
end
sources=(new_sources) click to toggle source

Need to be able to set the sources without calling Gem.sources.replace since that would cause an infinite loop.

DOC: This comment is not documentation about the method itself, it's more of a code comment about the implementation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1003
def self.sources=(new_sources)
  if !new_sources
    @sources = nil
  else
    @sources = Gem::SourceList.from(new_sources)
  end
end
spec_cache_dir() click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 431
def self.spec_cache_dir
  paths.spec_cache_dir
end
suffix_pattern() click to toggle source

Glob pattern for require-able path suffixes.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1014
def self.suffix_pattern
  @suffix_pattern ||= "{#{suffixes.join(',')}}"
end
suffixes() click to toggle source

Suffixes for require-able paths.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1021
def self.suffixes
  @suffixes ||= ['',
                 '.rb',
                 *%w(DLEXT DLEXT2).map do |key|
                   val = RbConfig::CONFIG[key]
                   next unless val and not val.empty?
                   ".#{val}"
                 end
                ].compact.uniq
end
time(msg, width = 0, display = Gem.configuration.verbose) { || ... } click to toggle source

Prints the amount of time the supplied block takes to run using the debug UI output.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1036
def self.time(msg, width = 0, display = Gem.configuration.verbose)
  now = Time.now

  value = yield

  elapsed = Time.now - now

  ui.say "%2$*1$s: %3$3.3fs" % [-width, msg, elapsed] if display

  value
end
try_activate(path) click to toggle source

Try to activate a gem containing path. Returns true if activation succeeded or wasn't needed because it was already activated. Returns false if it can't find the path in a gem.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 205
def self.try_activate(path)
  # finds the _latest_ version... regardless of loaded specs and their deps
  # if another gem had a requirement that would mean we shouldn't
  # activate the latest version, then either it would already be activated
  # or if it was ambiguous (and thus unresolved) the code in our custom
  # require will try to activate the more specific version.

  spec = Gem::Specification.find_by_path path
  return false unless spec
  return true if spec.activated?

  begin
    spec.activate
  rescue Gem::LoadError => e # this could fail due to gem dep collisions, go lax
    spec_by_name = Gem::Specification.find_by_name(spec.name)
    if spec_by_name.nil?
      raise e
    else
      spec_by_name.activate
    end
  end

  return true
end
ui() click to toggle source

Lazily loads DefaultUserInteraction and returns the default UI.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1051
def self.ui
  require 'rubygems/user_interaction'

  Gem::DefaultUserInteraction.ui
end
use_gemdeps(path = nil) click to toggle source

Looks for a gem dependency file at path and activates the gems in the file if found. If the file is not found an ArgumentError is raised.

If path is not given the RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS environment variable is used, but if no file is found no exception is raised.

If '-' is given for path RubyGems searches up from the current working directory for gem dependency files (gem.deps.rb, Gemfile, Isolate) and activates the gems in the first one found.

You can run this automatically when rubygems starts. To enable, set the RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS environment variable to either the path of your gem dependencies file or “-” to auto-discover in parent directories.

NOTE: Enabling automatic discovery on multiuser systems can lead to execution of arbitrary code when used from directories outside your control.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1160
def self.use_gemdeps(path = nil)
  raise_exception = path

  path ||= ENV['RUBYGEMS_GEMDEPS']
  return unless path

  path = path.dup

  if path == "-"
    Gem::Util.traverse_parents Dir.pwd do |directory|
      dep_file = GEM_DEP_FILES.find { |f| File.file?(f) }

      next unless dep_file

      path = File.join directory, dep_file
      break
    end
  end

  path.untaint

  unless File.file? path
    return unless raise_exception

    raise ArgumentError, "Unable to find gem dependencies file at #{path}"
  end

  if USE_BUNDLER_FOR_GEMDEPS

    ENV["BUNDLE_GEMFILE"] ||= File.expand_path(path)
    require 'rubygems/user_interaction'
    Gem::DefaultUserInteraction.use_ui(ui) do
      require "bundler"
      @gemdeps = Bundler.setup
      Bundler.ui = nil
      @gemdeps.requested_specs.map(&:to_spec).sort_by(&:name)
    end

  else

    rs = Gem::RequestSet.new
    @gemdeps = rs.load_gemdeps path

    rs.resolve_current.map do |s|
      s.full_spec.tap(&:activate)
    end

  end
rescue => e
  case e
  when Gem::LoadError, Gem::UnsatisfiableDependencyError, (defined?(Bundler::GemNotFound) ? Bundler::GemNotFound : Gem::LoadError)
    warn e.message
    warn "You may need to `gem install -g` to install missing gems"
    warn ""
  else
    raise
  end
end
Also aliased as: detect_gemdeps
use_paths(home, *paths) click to toggle source

Use the home and paths values for Gem.dir and Gem.path. Used mainly by the unit tests to provide environment isolation.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1061
def self.use_paths(home, *paths)
  paths.flatten!
  paths.compact!
  hash = { "GEM_HOME" => home, "GEM_PATH" => paths.empty? ? home : paths.join(File::PATH_SEPARATOR) }
  hash.delete_if { |_, v| v.nil? }
  self.paths = hash
end
user_dir() click to toggle source

Path for gems in the user's home directory

# File lib/rubygems/defaults.rb, line 76
def self.user_dir
  parts = [Gem.user_home, '.gem', ruby_engine]
  parts << RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version'] unless RbConfig::CONFIG['ruby_version'].empty?
  File.join parts
end
user_home() click to toggle source

The home directory for the user.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1072
def self.user_home
  @user_home ||= find_home.untaint
end
win_platform=(val) click to toggle source

Allows toggling Windows behavior. This method is available when requiring 'rubygems/test_case'

# File lib/rubygems/test_case.rb, line 73
def self.win_platform=(val)
  @@win_platform = val
end
win_platform?() click to toggle source

Is this a windows platform?

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 1079
def self.win_platform?
  if @@win_platform.nil?
    ruby_platform = RbConfig::CONFIG['host_os']
    @@win_platform = !!WIN_PATTERNS.find { |r| ruby_platform =~ r }
  end

  @@win_platform
end
write_binary(path, data) click to toggle source

Safely write a file in binary mode on all platforms.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 881
def self.write_binary(path, data)
  open(path, 'wb') do |io|
    begin
      io.flock(File::LOCK_EX)
    rescue *WRITE_BINARY_ERRORS
    end
    io.write data
  end
rescue Errno::ENOLCK # NFS
  if Thread.main != Thread.current
    raise
  else
    open(path, 'wb') do |io|
      io.write data
    end
  end
end

Private Class Methods

find_home() click to toggle source

Finds the user's home directory.

# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 574
def self.find_home
  Dir.home.dup
rescue
  if Gem.win_platform?
    File.expand_path File.join(ENV['HOMEDRIVE'] || ENV['SystemDrive'], '/')
  else
    File.expand_path "/"
  end
end
find_spec_for_exe(name, exec_name, requirements) click to toggle source
# File lib/rubygems.rb, line 265
def self.find_spec_for_exe(name, exec_name, requirements)
  dep = Gem::Dependency.new name, requirements

  loaded = Gem.loaded_specs[name]

  return loaded if loaded && dep.matches_spec?(loaded)

  specs = dep.matching_specs(true)

  specs = specs.find_all do |spec|
    spec.executables.include? exec_name
  end if exec_name

  unless spec = specs.first
    msg = "can't find gem #{dep} with executable #{exec_name}"
    if name == "bundler" && bundler_message = Gem::BundlerVersionFinder.missing_version_message
      msg = bundler_message
    end
    raise Gem::GemNotFoundException, msg
  end

  spec
end