class Time

Time is an abstraction of dates and times. Time is stored internally as the number of seconds with fraction since the Epoch, January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC. Also see the library module Date. The Time class treats GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) as equivalent. GMT is the older way of referring to these baseline times but persists in the names of calls on POSIX systems.

All times may have fraction. Be aware of this fact when comparing times with each other – times that are apparently equal when displayed may be different when compared.

Since Ruby 1.9.2, Time implementation uses a signed 63 bit integer, Bignum or Rational. The integer is a number of nanoseconds since the Epoch which can represent 1823-11-12 to 2116-02-20. When Bignum or Rational is used (before 1823, after 2116, under nanosecond), Time works slower as when integer is used.

Examples

All of these examples were done using the EST timezone which is GMT-5.

Creating a new Time instance

You can create a new instance of Time with ::new. This will use the current system time. ::now is an alias for this. You can also pass parts of the time to ::new such as year, month, minute, etc. When you want to construct a time this way you must pass at least a year. If you pass the year with nothing else time will default to January 1 of that year at 00:00:00 with the current system timezone. Here are some examples:

Time.new(2002)         #=> 2002-01-01 00:00:00 -0500
Time.new(2002, 10)     #=> 2002-10-01 00:00:00 -0500
Time.new(2002, 10, 31) #=> 2002-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

You can pass a UTC offset:

Time.new(2002, 10, 31, 2, 2, 2, "+02:00") #=> 2002-10-31 02:02:02 +0200

Or a timezone object:

tz = timezone("Europe/Athens") # Eastern European Time, UTC+2
Time.new(2002, 10, 31, 2, 2, 2, tz) #=> 2002-10-31 02:02:02 +0200

You can also use ::gm, ::local and ::utc to infer GMT, local and UTC timezones instead of using the current system setting.

You can also create a new time using ::at which takes the number of seconds (or fraction of seconds) since the Unix Epoch.

Time.at(628232400) #=> 1989-11-28 00:00:00 -0500

Working with an instance of Time

Once you have an instance of Time there is a multitude of things you can do with it. Below are some examples. For all of the following examples, we will work on the assumption that you have done the following:

t = Time.new(1993, 02, 24, 12, 0, 0, "+09:00")

Was that a monday?

t.monday? #=> false

What year was that again?

t.year #=> 1993

Was it daylight savings at the time?

t.dst? #=> false

What's the day a year later?

t + (60*60*24*365) #=> 1994-02-24 12:00:00 +0900

How many seconds was that since the Unix Epoch?

t.to_i #=> 730522800

You can also do standard functions like compare two times.

t1 = Time.new(2010)
t2 = Time.new(2011)

t1 == t2 #=> false
t1 == t1 #=> true
t1 <  t2 #=> true
t1 >  t2 #=> false

Time.new(2010,10,31).between?(t1, t2) #=> true

Timezone argument

A timezone argument must have local_to_utc and utc_to_local methods, and may have name and abbr methods.

The local_to_utc method should convert a Time-like object from the timezone to UTC, and utc_to_local is the opposite. The result also should be a Time or Time-like object (not necessary to be the same class). The zone of the result is just ignored. Time-like argument to these methods is similar to a Time object in UTC without sub-second; it has attribute readers for the parts, e.g. year, month, and so on, and epoch time readers, to_i. The sub-second attributes are fixed as 0, and utc_offset, zone, isdst, and their aliases are same as a Time object in UTC. Also to_time, #+, and #- methods are defined.

The name method is used for marshaling. If this method is not defined on a timezone object, Time objects using that timezone object can not be dumped by Marshal.

The abbr method is used by '%Z' in strftime.

Auto conversion to Timezone

At loading marshaled data, a timezone name will be converted to a timezone object by find_timezone class method, if the method is defined.

Similary, that class method will be called when a timezone argument does not have the necessary methods mentioned above.

Public Class Methods

at(time) → time click to toggle source
at(seconds_with_frac) → time
at(seconds, microseconds_with_frac) → time
at(seconds, milliseconds, :millisecond) → time
at(seconds, microseconds, :usec) → time
at(seconds, microseconds, :microsecond) → time
at(seconds, nanoseconds, :nsec) → time
at(seconds, nanoseconds, :nanosecond) → time
at(time, in: tz) → time
at(seconds_with_frac, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, microseconds_with_frac, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, milliseconds, :millisecond, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, microseconds, :usec, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, microseconds, :microsecond, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, nanoseconds, :nsec, in: tz) → time
at(seconds, nanoseconds, :nanosecond, in: tz) → time

Creates a new Time object with the value given by time, the given number of seconds_with_frac, or seconds and microseconds_with_frac since the Epoch. seconds_with_frac and microseconds_with_frac can be an Integer, Float, Rational, or other Numeric. non-portable feature allows the offset to be negative on some systems.

If in argument is given, the result is in that timezone or UTC offset, or if a numeric argument is given, the result is in local time.

Time.at(0)                                #=> 1969-12-31 18:00:00 -0600
Time.at(Time.at(0))                       #=> 1969-12-31 18:00:00 -0600
Time.at(946702800)                        #=> 1999-12-31 23:00:00 -0600
Time.at(-284061600)                       #=> 1960-12-31 00:00:00 -0600
Time.at(946684800.2).usec                 #=> 200000
Time.at(946684800, 123456.789).nsec       #=> 123456789
Time.at(946684800, 123456789, :nsec).nsec #=> 123456789
static VALUE
time_s_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE time, t, unit = Qundef, zone = Qundef, opts;
    wideval_t timew;

    argc = rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "12:", &time, &t, &unit, &opts);
    if (!NIL_P(opts)) {
        ID ids[1];
        VALUE vals[numberof(ids)];

        CONST_ID(ids[0], "in");
        rb_get_kwargs(opts, ids, 0, 1, vals);
        zone = vals[0];
    }
    if (argc >= 2) {
        int scale = argc == 3 ? get_scale(unit) : 1000000;
        time = num_exact(time);
        t = num_exact(t);
        timew = wadd(rb_time_magnify(v2w(time)), wmulquoll(v2w(t), TIME_SCALE, scale));
        t = time_new_timew(klass, timew);
    }
    else if (IsTimeval(time)) {
        struct time_object *tobj, *tobj2;
        GetTimeval(time, tobj);
        t = time_new_timew(klass, tobj->timew);
        GetTimeval(t, tobj2);
        TZMODE_COPY(tobj2, tobj);
    }
    else {
        timew = rb_time_magnify(v2w(num_exact(time)));
        t = time_new_timew(klass, timew);
    }
    if (zone != Qundef) {
        time_zonelocal(t, zone);
    }

    return t;
}
gm(year) → time click to toggle source
gm(year, month) → time
gm(year, month, day) → time
gm(year, month, day, hour) → time
gm(year, month, day, hour, min) → time
gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) → time
gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) → time
gm(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, dummy, dummy, dummy, dummy) → time

Creates a Time object based on given values, interpreted as UTC (GMT). The year must be specified. Other values default to the minimum value for that field (and may be nil or omitted). Months may be specified by numbers from 1 to 12, or by the three-letter English month names. Hours are specified on a 24-hour clock (0..23). Raises an ArgumentError if any values are out of range. Will also accept ten arguments in the order output by #to_a.

sec_with_frac and usec_with_frac can have a fractional part.

Time.utc(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
static VALUE
time_s_mkutc(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    struct vtm vtm;

    time_arg(argc, argv, &vtm);
    return time_gmtime(time_new_timew(klass, timegmw(&vtm)));
}
httpdate(date) click to toggle source

Parses date as an HTTP-date defined by RFC 2616 and converts it to a Time object.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with RFC 2616 or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See httpdate for more information on this format.

require 'time'

Time.httpdate("Thu, 06 Oct 2011 02:26:12 GMT")
#=> 2011-10-06 02:26:12 UTC

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 536
def httpdate(date)
  if date.match?(/\A\s*
      (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun),\x20
      (\d{2})\x20
      (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
      (\d{4})\x20
      (\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\x20
      GMT
      \s*\z/ix)
    self.rfc2822(date).utc
  elsif /\A\s*
         (?:Monday|Tuesday|Wednesday|Thursday|Friday|Saturday|Sunday),\x20
         (\d\d)-(Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)-(\d\d)\x20
         (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
         GMT
         \s*\z/ix =~ date
    year = $3.to_i
    if year < 50
      year += 2000
    else
      year += 1900
    end
    self.utc(year, $2, $1.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i, $6.to_i)
  elsif /\A\s*
         (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\x20
         (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
         (\d\d|\x20\d)\x20
         (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
         (\d{4})
         \s*\z/ix =~ date
    self.utc($6.to_i, MonthValue[$1.upcase], $2.to_i,
             $3.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i)
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2616 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end
json_create(object) click to toggle source

Deserializes JSON string by converting time since epoch to Time

# File ext/json/lib/json/add/time.rb, line 9
def self.json_create(object)
  if usec = object.delete('u') # used to be tv_usec -> tv_nsec
    object['n'] = usec * 1000
  end
  if method_defined?(:tv_nsec)
    at(object['s'], Rational(object['n'], 1000))
  else
    at(object['s'], object['n'] / 1000)
  end
end
local(year) → time click to toggle source
local(year, month) → time
local(year, month, day) → time
local(year, month, day, hour) → time
local(year, month, day, hour, min) → time
local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) → time
local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) → time
local(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, dummy, dummy, isdst, dummy) → time

Same as ::gm, but interprets the values in the local time zone.

Time.local(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
static VALUE
time_s_mktime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    struct vtm vtm;

    time_arg(argc, argv, &vtm);
    return time_localtime(time_new_timew(klass, timelocalw(&vtm)));
}
make_time(date, year, yday, mon, day, hour, min, sec, sec_fraction, zone, now) click to toggle source
# File lib/time.rb, line 192
  def make_time(date, year, yday, mon, day, hour, min, sec, sec_fraction, zone, now)
    if !year && !yday && !mon && !day && !hour && !min && !sec && !sec_fraction
      raise ArgumentError, "no time information in #{date.inspect}"
    end

    off = nil
    if year || now
      off_year = year || now.year
      off = zone_offset(zone, off_year) if zone
    end

    if yday
      mon, day = (yday-1).divmod(31)
      mon += 1
      day += 1
      t = make_time(date, year, nil, mon, day, hour, min, sec, sec_fraction, zone, now)
      diff = yday - t.yday
      return t if diff.zero?
      day += diff
      return make_time(date, year, nil, mon, day, hour, min, sec, sec_fraction, zone, now)
    end

    if now and now.respond_to?(:getlocal)
      if off
        now = now.getlocal(off) if now.utc_offset != off
      else
        now = now.getlocal
      end
    end

    usec = nil
    usec = sec_fraction * 1000000 if sec_fraction

    if now
      begin
        break if year; year = now.year
        break if mon; mon = now.mon
        break if day; day = now.day
        break if hour; hour = now.hour
        break if min; min = now.min
        break if sec; sec = now.sec
        break if sec_fraction; usec = now.tv_usec
      end until true
    end

    year ||= 1970
    mon ||= 1
    day ||= 1
    hour ||= 0
    min ||= 0
    sec ||= 0
    usec ||= 0

    if year != off_year
      off = nil
      off = zone_offset(zone, year) if zone
    end

    if off
      year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
        apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
      t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
      force_zone!(t, zone, off)
      t
    else
      self.local(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    end
  end
  private :make_time

  #
  # Takes a string representation of a Time and attempts to parse it
  # using a heuristic.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.parse("2010-10-31") #=> 2010-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
  #
  # Any missing pieces of the date are inferred based on the current date.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     # assuming the current date is "2011-10-31"
  #     Time.parse("12:00") #=> 2011-10-31 12:00:00 -0500
  #
  # We can change the date used to infer our missing elements by passing a second
  # object that responds to #mon, #day and #year, such as Date, Time or DateTime.
  # We can also use our own object.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     class MyDate
  #       attr_reader :mon, :day, :year
  #
  #       def initialize(mon, day, year)
  #         @mon, @day, @year = mon, day, year
  #       end
  #     end
  #
  #     d  = Date.parse("2010-10-28")
  #     t  = Time.parse("2010-10-29")
  #     dt = DateTime.parse("2010-10-30")
  #     md = MyDate.new(10,31,2010)
  #
  #     Time.parse("12:00", d)  #=> 2010-10-28 12:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("12:00", t)  #=> 2010-10-29 12:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("12:00", dt) #=> 2010-10-30 12:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("12:00", md) #=> 2010-10-31 12:00:00 -0500
  #
  # If a block is given, the year described in +date+ is converted
  # by the block.  This is specifically designed for handling two
  # digit years. For example, if you wanted to treat all two digit
  # years prior to 70 as the year 2000+ you could write this:
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.parse("01-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
  #     #=> 2001-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("70-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
  #     #=> 1970-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
  #
  # If the upper components of the given time are broken or missing, they are
  # supplied with those of +now+.  For the lower components, the minimum
  # values (1 or 0) are assumed if broken or missing.  For example:
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     # Suppose it is "Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 2001" now and
  #     # your time zone is EST which is GMT-5.
  #     now = Time.parse("Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 2001")
  #     Time.parse("16:30", now)     #=> 2001-11-29 16:30:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("7/23", now)      #=> 2001-07-23 00:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("Aug 31", now)    #=> 2001-08-31 00:00:00 -0500
  #     Time.parse("Aug 2000", now)  #=> 2000-08-01 00:00:00 -0500
  #
  # Since there are numerous conflicts among locally defined time zone
  # abbreviations all over the world, this method is not intended to
  # understand all of them.  For example, the abbreviation "CST" is
  # used variously as:
  #
  #     -06:00 in America/Chicago,
  #     -05:00 in America/Havana,
  #     +08:00 in Asia/Harbin,
  #     +09:30 in Australia/Darwin,
  #     +10:30 in Australia/Adelaide,
  #     etc.
  #
  # Based on this fact, this method only understands the time zone
  # abbreviations described in RFC 822 and the system time zone, in the
  # order named. (i.e. a definition in RFC 822 overrides the system
  # time zone definition.)  The system time zone is taken from
  # <tt>Time.local(year, 1, 1).zone</tt> and
  # <tt>Time.local(year, 7, 1).zone</tt>.
  # If the extracted time zone abbreviation does not match any of them,
  # it is ignored and the given time is regarded as a local time.
  #
  # ArgumentError is raised if Date._parse cannot extract information from
  # +date+ or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.
  #
  # This method can be used as a fail-safe for other parsing methods as:
  #
  #   Time.rfc2822(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
  #   Time.httpdate(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
  #   Time.xmlschema(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
  #
  # A failure of Time.parse should be checked, though.
  #
  # You must require 'time' to use this method.
  #
  def parse(date, now=self.now)
    comp = !block_given?
    d = Date._parse(date, comp)
    year = d[:year]
    year = yield(year) if year && !comp
    make_time(date, year, d[:yday], d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
  end

  #
  # Works similar to +parse+ except that instead of using a
  # heuristic to detect the format of the input string, you provide
  # a second argument that describes the format of the string.
  #
  # If a block is given, the year described in +date+ is converted by the
  # block.  For example:
  #
  #   Time.strptime(...) {|y| y < 100 ? (y >= 69 ? y + 1900 : y + 2000) : y}
  #
  # Below is a list of the formatting options:
  #
  # %a :: The abbreviated weekday name ("Sun")
  # %A :: The  full  weekday  name ("Sunday")
  # %b :: The abbreviated month name ("Jan")
  # %B :: The  full  month  name ("January")
  # %c :: The preferred local date and time representation
  # %C :: Century (20 in 2009)
  # %d :: Day of the month (01..31)
  # %D :: Date (%m/%d/%y)
  # %e :: Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)
  # %F :: Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format)
  # %h :: Equivalent to %b
  # %H :: Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)
  # %I :: Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)
  # %j :: Day of the year (001..366)
  # %k :: hour, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)
  # %l :: hour, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..12)
  # %L :: Millisecond of the second (000..999)
  # %m :: Month of the year (01..12)
  # %M :: Minute of the hour (00..59)
  # %n :: Newline (\n)
  # %N :: Fractional seconds digits
  # %p :: Meridian indicator ("AM" or "PM")
  # %P :: Meridian indicator ("am" or "pm")
  # %Q :: Number of milliseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.
  # %r :: time, 12-hour (same as %I:%M:%S %p)
  # %R :: time, 24-hour (%H:%M)
  # %s :: Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.
  # %S :: Second of the minute (00..60)
  # %t :: Tab character (\t)
  # %T :: time, 24-hour (%H:%M:%S)
  # %u :: Day of the week as a decimal, Monday being 1. (1..7)
  # %U :: Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as
  #       the first day of the first week (00..53)
  # %v :: VMS date (%e-%b-%Y)
  # %V :: Week number of year according to ISO 8601 (01..53)
  # %W :: Week  number  of the current year, starting with the first Monday
  #       as the first day of the first week (00..53)
  # %w :: Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)
  # %x :: Preferred representation for the date alone, no time
  # %X :: Preferred representation for the time alone, no date
  # %y :: Year without a century (00..99)
  # %Y :: Year which may include century, if provided
  # %z :: Time zone as  hour offset from UTC (e.g. +0900)
  # %Z :: Time zone name
  # %% :: Literal "%" character
  # %+ :: date(1) (%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y)
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.strptime("2000-10-31", "%Y-%m-%d") #=> 2000-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
  #
  # You must require 'time' to use this method.
  #
  def strptime(date, format, now=self.now)
    d = Date._strptime(date, format)
    raise ArgumentError, "invalid strptime format - `#{format}'" unless d
    if seconds = d[:seconds]
      if sec_fraction = d[:sec_fraction]
        usec = sec_fraction * 1000000
        usec *= -1 if seconds < 0
      else
        usec = 0
      end
      t = Time.at(seconds, usec)
      if zone = d[:zone]
        force_zone!(t, zone)
      end
    else
      year = d[:year]
      year = yield(year) if year && block_given?
      t = make_time(date, year, d[:yday], d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
    end
    t
  end

  MonthValue = { # :nodoc:
    'JAN' => 1, 'FEB' => 2, 'MAR' => 3, 'APR' => 4, 'MAY' => 5, 'JUN' => 6,
    'JUL' => 7, 'AUG' => 8, 'SEP' => 9, 'OCT' =>10, 'NOV' =>11, 'DEC' =>12
  }

  #
  # Parses +date+ as date-time defined by RFC 2822 and converts it to a Time
  # object.  The format is identical to the date format defined by RFC 822 and
  # updated by RFC 1123.
  #
  # ArgumentError is raised if +date+ is not compliant with RFC 2822
  # or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.
  #
  # See #rfc2822 for more information on this format.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.rfc2822("Wed, 05 Oct 2011 22:26:12 -0400")
  #     #=> 2010-10-05 22:26:12 -0400
  #
  # You must require 'time' to use this method.
  #
  def rfc2822(date)
    if /\A\s*
        (?:(?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\s*,\s*)?
        (\d{1,2})\s+
        (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\s+
        (\d{2,})\s+
        (\d{2})\s*
        :\s*(\d{2})\s*
        (?::\s*(\d{2}))?\s+
        ([+-]\d{4}|
         UT|GMT|EST|EDT|CST|CDT|MST|MDT|PST|PDT|[A-IK-Z])/ix =~ date
      # Since RFC 2822 permit comments, the regexp has no right anchor.
      day = $1.to_i
      mon = MonthValue[$2.upcase]
      year = $3.to_i
      short_year_p = $3.length <= 3
      hour = $4.to_i
      min = $5.to_i
      sec = $6 ? $6.to_i : 0
      zone = $7

      if short_year_p
        # following year completion is compliant with RFC 2822.
        year = if year < 50
                 2000 + year
               else
                 1900 + year
               end
      end

      off = zone_offset(zone)
      year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
        apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
      t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec)
      force_zone!(t, zone, off)
      t
    else
      raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2822 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
    end
  end
  alias rfc822 rfc2822

  #
  # Parses +date+ as an HTTP-date defined by RFC 2616 and converts it to a
  # Time object.
  #
  # ArgumentError is raised if +date+ is not compliant with RFC 2616 or if
  # the Time class cannot represent specified date.
  #
  # See #httpdate for more information on this format.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.httpdate("Thu, 06 Oct 2011 02:26:12 GMT")
  #     #=> 2011-10-06 02:26:12 UTC
  #
  # You must require 'time' to use this method.
  #
  def httpdate(date)
    if date.match?(/\A\s*
        (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun),\x20
        (\d{2})\x20
        (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
        (\d{4})\x20
        (\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\x20
        GMT
        \s*\z/ix)
      self.rfc2822(date).utc
    elsif /\A\s*
           (?:Monday|Tuesday|Wednesday|Thursday|Friday|Saturday|Sunday),\x20
           (\d\d)-(Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)-(\d\d)\x20
           (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
           GMT
           \s*\z/ix =~ date
      year = $3.to_i
      if year < 50
        year += 2000
      else
        year += 1900
      end
      self.utc(year, $2, $1.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i, $6.to_i)
    elsif /\A\s*
           (?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\x20
           (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\x20
           (\d\d|\x20\d)\x20
           (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)\x20
           (\d{4})
           \s*\z/ix =~ date
      self.utc($6.to_i, MonthValue[$1.upcase], $2.to_i,
               $3.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i)
    else
      raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2616 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
    end
  end

  #
  # Parses +date+ as a dateTime defined by the XML Schema and converts it to
  # a Time object.  The format is a restricted version of the format defined
  # by ISO 8601.
  #
  # ArgumentError is raised if +date+ is not compliant with the format or if
  # the Time class cannot represent specified date.
  #
  # See #xmlschema for more information on this format.
  #
  #     require 'time'
  #
  #     Time.xmlschema("2011-10-05T22:26:12-04:00")
  #     #=> 2011-10-05 22:26:12-04:00
  #
  # You must require 'time' to use this method.
  #
  def xmlschema(date)
    if /\A\s*
        (-?\d+)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)
        T
        (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)
        (\.\d+)?
        (Z|[+-]\d\d(?::?\d\d)?)?
        \s*\z/ix =~ date
      year = $1.to_i
      mon = $2.to_i
      day = $3.to_i
      hour = $4.to_i
      min = $5.to_i
      sec = $6.to_i
      usec = 0
      if $7
        usec = Rational($7) * 1000000
      end
      if $8
        zone = $8
        off = zone_offset(zone)
        year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
          apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
        t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
        force_zone!(t, zone, off)
        t
      else
        self.local(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
      end
    else
      raise ArgumentError.new("invalid date: #{date.inspect}")
    end
  end
  alias iso8601 xmlschema
end # class << self

#
# Returns a string which represents the time as date-time defined by RFC 2822:
#
#   day-of-week, DD month-name CCYY hh:mm:ss zone
#
# where zone is [+-]hhmm.
#
# If +self+ is a UTC time, -0000 is used as zone.
#
#     require 'time'
#
#     t = Time.now
#     t.rfc2822  # => "Wed, 05 Oct 2011 22:26:12 -0400"
#
# You must require 'time' to use this method.
#
def rfc2822
  sprintf('%s, %02d %s %0*d %02d:%02d:%02d ',
    RFC2822_DAY_NAME[wday],
    day, RFC2822_MONTH_NAME[mon-1], year < 0 ? 5 : 4, year,
    hour, min, sec) <<
  if utc?
    '-0000'
  else
    off = utc_offset
    sign = off < 0 ? '-' : '+'
    sprintf('%s%02d%02d', sign, *(off.abs / 60).divmod(60))
  end
end
alias rfc822 rfc2822


RFC2822_DAY_NAME = [ # :nodoc:
  'Sun', 'Mon', 'Tue', 'Wed', 'Thu', 'Fri', 'Sat'
]

RFC2822_MONTH_NAME = [ # :nodoc:
  'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
  'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'
]

#
# Returns a string which represents the time as RFC 1123 date of HTTP-date
# defined by RFC 2616:
#
#   day-of-week, DD month-name CCYY hh:mm:ss GMT
#
# Note that the result is always UTC (GMT).
#
#     require 'time'
#
#     t = Time.now
#     t.httpdate # => "Thu, 06 Oct 2011 02:26:12 GMT"
#
# You must require 'time' to use this method.
#
def httpdate
  t = dup.utc
  sprintf('%s, %02d %s %0*d %02d:%02d:%02d GMT',
    RFC2822_DAY_NAME[t.wday],
    t.day, RFC2822_MONTH_NAME[t.mon-1], t.year < 0 ? 5 : 4, t.year,
    t.hour, t.min, t.sec)
end

#
# Returns a string which represents the time as a dateTime defined by XML
# Schema:
#
#   CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssTZD
#   CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sssTZD
#
# where TZD is Z or [+-]hh:mm.
#
# If self is a UTC time, Z is used as TZD.  [+-]hh:mm is used otherwise.
#
# +fractional_digits+ specifies a number of digits to use for fractional
# seconds.  Its default value is 0.
#
#     require 'time'
#
#     t = Time.now
#     t.iso8601  # => "2011-10-05T22:26:12-04:00"
#
# You must require 'time' to use this method.
#
def xmlschema(fraction_digits=0)
  fraction_digits = fraction_digits.to_i
  s = strftime("%FT%T")
  if fraction_digits > 0
    s << strftime(".%#{fraction_digits}N")
  end
  s << (utc? ? 'Z' : strftime("%:z"))
end
alias iso8601 xmlschema
mktime(year) → time click to toggle source
mktime(year, month) → time
mktime(year, month, day) → time
mktime(year, month, day, hour) → time
mktime(year, month, day, hour, min) → time
mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) → time
mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) → time
mktime(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, dummy, dummy, isdst, dummy) → time

Same as ::gm, but interprets the values in the local time zone.

Time.local(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
static VALUE
time_s_mktime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    struct vtm vtm;

    time_arg(argc, argv, &vtm);
    return time_localtime(time_new_timew(klass, timelocalw(&vtm)));
}
new → time click to toggle source
new(year, month=nil, day=nil, hour=nil, min=nil, sec=nil, tz=nil) → time

Returns a Time object.

It is initialized to the current system time if no argument is given.

Note: The new object will use the resolution available on your system clock, and may include fractional seconds.

If one or more arguments are specified, the time is initialized to the specified time.

sec may have fraction if it is a rational.

tz is the offset from UTC, or a timezone object. It can be a string such as “+09:00” or a number of seconds such as 32400.

a = Time.new      #=> 2007-11-19 07:50:02 -0600
b = Time.new      #=> 2007-11-19 07:50:02 -0600
a == b            #=> false
"%.6f" % a.to_f   #=> "1195480202.282373"
"%.6f" % b.to_f   #=> "1195480202.283415"

Time.new(2008,6,21, 13,30,0, "+09:00") #=> 2008-06-21 13:30:00 +0900

# A trip for RubyConf 2007
t1 = Time.new(2007,11,1,15,25,0, "+09:00") # JST (Narita)
t2 = Time.new(2007,11,1,12, 5,0, "-05:00") # CDT (Minneapolis)
t3 = Time.new(2007,11,1,13,25,0, "-05:00") # CDT (Minneapolis)
t4 = Time.new(2007,11,1,16,53,0, "-04:00") # EDT (Charlotte)
t5 = Time.new(2007,11,5, 9,24,0, "-05:00") # EST (Charlotte)
t6 = Time.new(2007,11,5,11,21,0, "-05:00") # EST (Detroit)
t7 = Time.new(2007,11,5,13,45,0, "-05:00") # EST (Detroit)
t8 = Time.new(2007,11,6,17,10,0, "+09:00") # JST (Narita)
(t2-t1)/3600.0                             #=> 10.666666666666666
(t4-t3)/3600.0                             #=> 2.466666666666667
(t6-t5)/3600.0                             #=> 1.95
(t8-t7)/3600.0                             #=> 13.416666666666666

Or it can be a timezone object. See Timezone argument for details.

static VALUE
time_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    if (argc == 0)
        return time_init_0(time);
    else
        return time_init_1(argc, argv, time);
}
now → time click to toggle source

Creates a new Time object for the current time. This is same as ::new without arguments.

Time.now            #=> 2009-06-24 12:39:54 +0900
static VALUE
time_s_now(VALUE klass)
{
    return rb_class_new_instance(0, NULL, klass);
}
parse(date, now=self.now) { |year| ... } click to toggle source

Takes a string representation of a Time and attempts to parse it using a heuristic.

require 'time'

Time.parse("2010-10-31") #=> 2010-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

Any missing pieces of the date are inferred based on the current date.

require 'time'

# assuming the current date is "2011-10-31"
Time.parse("12:00") #=> 2011-10-31 12:00:00 -0500

We can change the date used to infer our missing elements by passing a second object that responds to mon, day and year, such as Date, Time or DateTime. We can also use our own object.

require 'time'

class MyDate
  attr_reader :mon, :day, :year

  def initialize(mon, day, year)
    @mon, @day, @year = mon, day, year
  end
end

d  = Date.parse("2010-10-28")
t  = Time.parse("2010-10-29")
dt = DateTime.parse("2010-10-30")
md = MyDate.new(10,31,2010)

Time.parse("12:00", d)  #=> 2010-10-28 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", t)  #=> 2010-10-29 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", dt) #=> 2010-10-30 12:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("12:00", md) #=> 2010-10-31 12:00:00 -0500

If a block is given, the year described in date is converted by the block. This is specifically designed for handling two digit years. For example, if you wanted to treat all two digit years prior to 70 as the year 2000+ you could write this:

require 'time'

Time.parse("01-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
#=> 2001-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("70-10-31") {|year| year + (year < 70 ? 2000 : 1900)}
#=> 1970-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

If the upper components of the given time are broken or missing, they are supplied with those of now. For the lower components, the minimum values (1 or 0) are assumed if broken or missing. For example:

require 'time'

# Suppose it is "Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 2001" now and
# your time zone is EST which is GMT-5.
now = Time.parse("Thu Nov 29 14:33:20 2001")
Time.parse("16:30", now)     #=> 2001-11-29 16:30:00 -0500
Time.parse("7/23", now)      #=> 2001-07-23 00:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("Aug 31", now)    #=> 2001-08-31 00:00:00 -0500
Time.parse("Aug 2000", now)  #=> 2000-08-01 00:00:00 -0500

Since there are numerous conflicts among locally defined time zone abbreviations all over the world, this method is not intended to understand all of them. For example, the abbreviation “CST” is used variously as:

-06:00 in America/Chicago,
-05:00 in America/Havana,
+08:00 in Asia/Harbin,
+09:30 in Australia/Darwin,
+10:30 in Australia/Adelaide,
etc.

Based on this fact, this method only understands the time zone abbreviations described in RFC 822 and the system time zone, in the order named. (i.e. a definition in RFC 822 overrides the system time zone definition.) The system time zone is taken from Time.local(year, 1, 1).zone and Time.local(year, 7, 1).zone. If the extracted time zone abbreviation does not match any of them, it is ignored and the given time is regarded as a local time.

ArgumentError is raised if Date._parse cannot extract information from date or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

This method can be used as a fail-safe for other parsing methods as:

Time.rfc2822(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
Time.httpdate(date) rescue Time.parse(date)
Time.xmlschema(date) rescue Time.parse(date)

A failure of ::parse should be checked, though.

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 361
def parse(date, now=self.now)
  comp = !block_given?
  d = Date._parse(date, comp)
  year = d[:year]
  year = yield(year) if year && !comp
  make_time(date, year, d[:yday], d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
end
rfc2822(date) click to toggle source

Parses date as date-time defined by RFC 2822 and converts it to a Time object. The format is identical to the date format defined by RFC 822 and updated by RFC 1123.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with RFC 2822 or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See rfc2822 for more information on this format.

require 'time'

Time.rfc2822("Wed, 05 Oct 2011 22:26:12 -0400")
#=> 2010-10-05 22:26:12 -0400

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 478
def rfc2822(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (?:(?:Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat|Sun)\s*,\s*)?
      (\d{1,2})\s+
      (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec)\s+
      (\d{2,})\s+
      (\d{2})\s*
      :\s*(\d{2})\s*
      (?::\s*(\d{2}))?\s+
      ([+-]\d{4}|
       UT|GMT|EST|EDT|CST|CDT|MST|MDT|PST|PDT|[A-IK-Z])/ix =~ date
    # Since RFC 2822 permit comments, the regexp has no right anchor.
    day = $1.to_i
    mon = MonthValue[$2.upcase]
    year = $3.to_i
    short_year_p = $3.length <= 3
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6 ? $6.to_i : 0
    zone = $7

    if short_year_p
      # following year completion is compliant with RFC 2822.
      year = if year < 50
               2000 + year
             else
               1900 + year
             end
    end

    off = zone_offset(zone)
    year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
      apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
    t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec)
    force_zone!(t, zone, off)
    t
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("not RFC 2822 compliant date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end
strptime(date, format, now=self.now) { |year| ... } click to toggle source

Works similar to parse except that instead of using a heuristic to detect the format of the input string, you provide a second argument that describes the format of the string.

If a block is given, the year described in date is converted by the block. For example:

Time.strptime(...) {|y| y < 100 ? (y >= 69 ? y + 1900 : y + 2000) : y}

Below is a list of the formatting options:

%a

The abbreviated weekday name (“Sun”)

%A

The full weekday name (“Sunday”)

%b

The abbreviated month name (“Jan”)

%B

The full month name (“January”)

%c

The preferred local date and time representation

%C

Century (20 in 2009)

%d

Day of the month (01..31)

%D

Date (%m/%d/%y)

%e

Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)

%F

Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format)

%h

Equivalent to %b

%H

Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)

%I

Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)

%j

Day of the year (001..366)

%k

hour, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)

%l

hour, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..12)

%L

Millisecond of the second (000..999)

%m

Month of the year (01..12)

%M

Minute of the hour (00..59)

%n

Newline (n)

%N

Fractional seconds digits

%p

Meridian indicator (“AM” or “PM”)

%P

Meridian indicator (“am” or “pm”)

%Q

Number of milliseconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

%r

time, 12-hour (same as %I:%M:%S %p)

%R

time, 24-hour (%H:%M)

%s

Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

%S

Second of the minute (00..60)

%t

Tab character (t)

%T

time, 24-hour (%H:%M:%S)

%u

Day of the week as a decimal, Monday being 1. (1..7)

%U

Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%v

VMS date (%e-%b-%Y)

%V

Week number of year according to ISO 8601 (01..53)

%W

Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%w

Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

%x

Preferred representation for the date alone, no time

%X

Preferred representation for the time alone, no date

%y

Year without a century (00..99)

%Y

Year which may include century, if provided

%z

Time zone as hour offset from UTC (e.g. +0900)

%Z

Time zone name

%%

Literal “%” character

%+

date(1) (%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y)

require 'time'

Time.strptime("2000-10-31", "%Y-%m-%d") #=> 2000-10-31 00:00:00 -0500

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 434
def strptime(date, format, now=self.now)
  d = Date._strptime(date, format)
  raise ArgumentError, "invalid strptime format - `#{format}'" unless d
  if seconds = d[:seconds]
    if sec_fraction = d[:sec_fraction]
      usec = sec_fraction * 1000000
      usec *= -1 if seconds < 0
    else
      usec = 0
    end
    t = Time.at(seconds, usec)
    if zone = d[:zone]
      force_zone!(t, zone)
    end
  else
    year = d[:year]
    year = yield(year) if year && block_given?
    t = make_time(date, year, d[:yday], d[:mon], d[:mday], d[:hour], d[:min], d[:sec], d[:sec_fraction], d[:zone], now)
  end
  t
end
utc(year) → time click to toggle source
utc(year, month) → time
utc(year, month, day) → time
utc(year, month, day, hour) → time
utc(year, month, day, hour, min) → time
utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) → time
utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) → time
utc(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, dummy, dummy, dummy, dummy) → time

Creates a Time object based on given values, interpreted as UTC (GMT). The year must be specified. Other values default to the minimum value for that field (and may be nil or omitted). Months may be specified by numbers from 1 to 12, or by the three-letter English month names. Hours are specified on a 24-hour clock (0..23). Raises an ArgumentError if any values are out of range. Will also accept ten arguments in the order output by #to_a.

sec_with_frac and usec_with_frac can have a fractional part.

Time.utc(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
static VALUE
time_s_mkutc(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    struct vtm vtm;

    time_arg(argc, argv, &vtm);
    return time_gmtime(time_new_timew(klass, timegmw(&vtm)));
}
w3cdtf(date) click to toggle source

This method converts a W3CDTF string date/time format to Time object.

The W3CDTF format is defined here: www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime

Time.w3cdtf('2003-02-15T13:50:05-05:00')
# => 2003-02-15 10:50:05 -0800
Time.w3cdtf('2003-02-15T13:50:05-05:00').class
# => Time
# File lib/rss/rss.rb, line 15
def w3cdtf(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (-?\d+)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)
      (?:T
      (\d\d):(\d\d)(?::(\d\d))?
      (\.\d+)?
      (Z|[+-]\d\d:\d\d)?)?
      \s*\z/ix =~ date and (($5 and $8) or (!$5 and !$8))
    datetime = [$1.to_i, $2.to_i, $3.to_i, $4.to_i, $5.to_i, $6.to_i]
    usec = 0
    usec = $7.to_f * 1000000 if $7
    zone = $8
    if zone
      off = zone_offset(zone, datetime[0])
      datetime = apply_offset(*(datetime + [off]))
      datetime << usec
      time = Time.utc(*datetime)
      force_zone!(time, zone, off)
      time
    else
      datetime << usec
      Time.local(*datetime)
    end
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("invalid date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end
xmlschema(date) click to toggle source

Parses date as a dateTime defined by the XML Schema and converts it to a Time object. The format is a restricted version of the format defined by ISO 8601.

ArgumentError is raised if date is not compliant with the format or if the Time class cannot represent specified date.

See xmlschema for more information on this format.

require 'time'

Time.xmlschema("2011-10-05T22:26:12-04:00")
#=> 2011-10-05 22:26:12-04:00

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 590
def xmlschema(date)
  if /\A\s*
      (-?\d+)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)
      T
      (\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)
      (\.\d+)?
      (Z|[+-]\d\d(?::?\d\d)?)?
      \s*\z/ix =~ date
    year = $1.to_i
    mon = $2.to_i
    day = $3.to_i
    hour = $4.to_i
    min = $5.to_i
    sec = $6.to_i
    usec = 0
    if $7
      usec = Rational($7) * 1000000
    end
    if $8
      zone = $8
      off = zone_offset(zone)
      year, mon, day, hour, min, sec =
        apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
      t = self.utc(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
      force_zone!(t, zone, off)
      t
    else
      self.local(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
    end
  else
    raise ArgumentError.new("invalid date: #{date.inspect}")
  end
end
zone_offset(zone, year=self.now.year) click to toggle source

Return the number of seconds the specified time zone differs from UTC.

Numeric time zones that include minutes, such as -10:00 or +1330 will work, as will simpler hour-only time zones like -10 or +13.

Textual time zones listed in ZoneOffset are also supported.

If the time zone does not match any of the above, zone_offset will check if the local time zone (both with and without potential Daylight Saving Time changes being in effect) matches zone. Specifying a value for year will change the year used to find the local time zone.

If zone_offset is unable to determine the offset, nil will be returned.

require 'time'

Time.zone_offset("EST") #=> -18000

You must require 'time' to use this method.

# File lib/time.rb, line 78
def zone_offset(zone, year=self.now.year)
  off = nil
  zone = zone.upcase
  if /\A([+-])(\d\d)(:?)(\d\d)(?:\3(\d\d))?\z/ =~ zone
    off = ($1 == '-' ? -1 : 1) * (($2.to_i * 60 + $4.to_i) * 60 + $5.to_i)
  elsif zone.match?(/\A[+-]\d\d\z/)
    off = zone.to_i * 3600
  elsif ZoneOffset.include?(zone)
    off = ZoneOffset[zone] * 3600
  elsif ((t = self.local(year, 1, 1)).zone.upcase == zone rescue false)
    off = t.utc_offset
  elsif ((t = self.local(year, 7, 1)).zone.upcase == zone rescue false)
    off = t.utc_offset
  end
  off
end

Private Class Methods

apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off) click to toggle source
# File lib/time.rb, line 148
def apply_offset(year, mon, day, hour, min, sec, off)
  if off < 0
    off = -off
    off, o = off.divmod(60)
    if o != 0 then sec += o; o, sec = sec.divmod(60); off += o end
    off, o = off.divmod(60)
    if o != 0 then min += o; o, min = min.divmod(60); off += o end
    off, o = off.divmod(24)
    if o != 0 then hour += o; o, hour = hour.divmod(24); off += o end
    if off != 0
      day += off
      days = month_days(year, mon)
      if days and days < day
        mon += 1
        if 12 < mon
          mon = 1
          year += 1
        end
        day = 1
      end
    end
  elsif 0 < off
    off, o = off.divmod(60)
    if o != 0 then sec -= o; o, sec = sec.divmod(60); off -= o end
    off, o = off.divmod(60)
    if o != 0 then min -= o; o, min = min.divmod(60); off -= o end
    off, o = off.divmod(24)
    if o != 0 then hour -= o; o, hour = hour.divmod(24); off -= o end
    if off != 0 then
      day -= off
      if day < 1
        mon -= 1
        if mon < 1
          year -= 1
          mon = 12
        end
        day = month_days(year, mon)
      end
    end
  end
  return year, mon, day, hour, min, sec
end
force_zone!(t, zone, offset=nil) click to toggle source
# File lib/time.rb, line 119
def force_zone!(t, zone, offset=nil)
  if zone_utc?(zone)
    t.utc
  elsif offset ||= zone_offset(zone)
    # Prefer the local timezone over the fixed offset timezone because
    # the former is a real timezone and latter is an artificial timezone.
    t.localtime
    if t.utc_offset != offset
      # Use the fixed offset timezone only if the local timezone cannot
      # represent the given offset.
      t.localtime(offset)
    end
  else
    t.localtime
  end
end
month_days(y, m) click to toggle source
# File lib/time.rb, line 139
def month_days(y, m)
  if ((y % 4 == 0) && (y % 100 != 0)) || (y % 400 == 0)
    LeapYearMonthDays[m-1]
  else
    CommonYearMonthDays[m-1]
  end
end
zone_utc?(zone) click to toggle source
# File lib/time.rb, line 95
def zone_utc?(zone)
  # * +0000
  #   In RFC 2822, +0000 indicate a time zone at Universal Time.
  #   Europe/Lisbon is "a time zone at Universal Time" in Winter.
  #   Atlantic/Reykjavik is "a time zone at Universal Time".
  #   Africa/Dakar is "a time zone at Universal Time".
  #   So +0000 is a local time such as Europe/London, etc.
  # * GMT
  #   GMT is used as a time zone abbreviation in Europe/London,
  #   Africa/Dakar, etc.
  #   So it is a local time.
  #
  # * -0000, -00:00
  #   In RFC 2822, -0000 the date-time contains no information about the
  #   local time zone.
  #   In RFC 3339, -00:00 is used for the time in UTC is known,
  #   but the offset to local time is unknown.
  #   They are not appropriate for specific time zone such as
  #   Europe/London because time zone neutral,
  #   So -00:00 and -0000 are treated as UTC.
  zone.match?(/\A(?:-00:00|-0000|-00|UTC|Z|UT)\z/i)
end

Public Instance Methods

time + numeric → time click to toggle source

Addition — Adds some number of seconds (possibly fractional) to time and returns that value as a new Time object.

t = Time.now         #=> 2007-11-19 08:22:21 -0600
t + (60 * 60 * 24)   #=> 2007-11-20 08:22:21 -0600
static VALUE
time_plus(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    GetTimeval(time1, tobj);

    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "time + time?");
    }
    return time_add(tobj, time1, time2, 1);
}
time - other_time → float click to toggle source
time - numeric → time

Difference — Returns a difference in seconds as a Float between time and other_time, or subtracts the given number of seconds in numeric from time.

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:10 -0600
t2 = t + 2592000   #=> 2007-12-19 08:23:10 -0600
t2 - t             #=> 2592000.0
t2 - 2592000       #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:10 -0600
static VALUE
time_minus(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
        struct time_object *tobj2;

        GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
        return rb_Float(rb_time_unmagnify_to_float(wsub(tobj->timew, tobj2->timew)));
    }
    return time_add(tobj, time1, time2, -1);
}
time <=> other_time → -1, 0, +1, or nil click to toggle source

Comparison—Compares time with other_time.

-1, 0, +1 or nil depending on whether time is less than, equal to, or greater than other_time.

nil is returned if the two values are incomparable.

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:12:12 -0600
t2 = t + 2592000   #=> 2007-12-19 08:12:12 -0600
t <=> t2           #=> -1
t2 <=> t           #=> 1

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:13:38 -0600
t2 = t + 0.1       #=> 2007-11-19 08:13:38 -0600
t.nsec             #=> 98222999
t2.nsec            #=> 198222999
t <=> t2           #=> -1
t2 <=> t           #=> 1
t <=> t            #=> 0
static VALUE
time_cmp(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj1, *tobj2;
    int n;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj1);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
        GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
        n = wcmp(tobj1->timew, tobj2->timew);
    }
    else {
        return rb_invcmp(time1, time2);
    }
    if (n == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
    if (n > 0) return INT2FIX(1);
    return INT2FIX(-1);
}
as_json(*) click to toggle source

Returns a hash, that will be turned into a JSON object and represent this object.

# File ext/json/lib/json/add/time.rb, line 22
def as_json(*)
  nanoseconds = [ tv_usec * 1000 ]
  respond_to?(:tv_nsec) and nanoseconds << tv_nsec
  nanoseconds = nanoseconds.max
  {
    JSON.create_id => self.class.name,
    's'            => tv_sec,
    'n'            => nanoseconds,
  }
end
asctime → string click to toggle source

Returns a canonical string representation of time.

Time.now.asctime   #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"
Time.now.ctime     #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"
static VALUE
time_asctime(VALUE time)
{
    return strftimev("%a %b %e %T %Y", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}
ctime → string click to toggle source

Returns a canonical string representation of time.

Time.now.asctime   #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"
Time.now.ctime     #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"
static VALUE
time_asctime(VALUE time)
{
    return strftimev("%a %b %e %T %Y", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}
day → integer click to toggle source

Returns the day of the month (1..n) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:03 -0600
t.day          #=> 19
t.mday         #=> 19
static VALUE
time_mday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday);
}
dst? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time occurs during Daylight Saving Time in its time zone.

# CST6CDT:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "CST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "CDT"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> true
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> true

# Asia/Tokyo:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> false
static VALUE
time_isdst(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.isdst ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}
eql?(other_time) click to toggle source

Returns true if time and other_time are both Time objects with the same seconds and fractional seconds.

static VALUE
time_eql(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj1, *tobj2;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj1);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
        GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
        return rb_equal(w2v(tobj1->timew), w2v(tobj2->timew));
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
friday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Friday.

t = Time.local(1987, 12, 18)     #=> 1987-12-18 00:00:00 -0600
t.friday?                        #=> true
static VALUE
time_friday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(5);
}
getgm → new_time click to toggle source

Returns a new Time object representing time in UTC.

t = Time.local(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
t.gmt?                             #=> false
y = t.getgm                        #=> 2000-01-02 02:15:01 UTC
y.gmt?                             #=> true
t == y                             #=> true
static VALUE
time_getgmtime(VALUE time)
{
    return time_gmtime(time_dup(time));
}
getlocal → new_time click to toggle source
getlocal(utc_offset) → new_time
getlocal(timezone) → new_time

Returns a new Time object representing time in local time (using the local time zone in effect for this process).

If utc_offset is given, it is used instead of the local time. utc_offset can be given as a human-readable string (eg. "+09:00") or as a number of seconds (eg. 32400).

t = Time.utc(2000,1,1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                          #=> true

l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.utc?                          #=> false
t == l                          #=> true

j = t.getlocal("+09:00")        #=> 2000-01-02 05:15:01 +0900
j.utc?                          #=> false
t == j                          #=> true

k = t.getlocal(9*60*60)         #=> 2000-01-02 05:15:01 +0900
k.utc?                          #=> false
t == k                          #=> true
static VALUE
time_getlocaltime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE off;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) && !NIL_P(off = argv[0])) {
        VALUE zone = off;
        if (maybe_tzobj_p(zone)) {
            VALUE t = time_dup(time);
            if (zone_localtime(off, t)) return t;
        }

        if (NIL_P(off = utc_offset_arg(off))) {
            if (NIL_P(zone = find_timezone(time, zone))) invalid_utc_offset();
            time = time_dup(time);
            if (!zone_localtime(zone, time)) invalid_utc_offset();
            return time;
        }
        validate_utc_offset(off);

        time = time_dup(time);
        time_set_utc_offset(time, off);
        return time_fixoff(time);
    }

    return time_localtime(time_dup(time));
}
getutc → new_time click to toggle source

Returns a new Time object representing time in UTC.

t = Time.local(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
t.gmt?                             #=> false
y = t.getgm                        #=> 2000-01-02 02:15:01 UTC
y.gmt?                             #=> true
t == y                             #=> true
static VALUE
time_getgmtime(VALUE time)
{
    return time_gmtime(time_dup(time));
}
gmt? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents a time in UTC (GMT).

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:15:23 -0600
t.utc?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                              #=> true

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:16:03 -0600
t.gmt?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)       #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt?                              #=> true
static VALUE
time_utc_p(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
gmt_offset → integer click to toggle source

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600
VALUE
rb_time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
        MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
        return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}
gmtime → time click to toggle source

Converts time to UTC (GMT), modifying the receiver.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:31 -0600
t.gmt?         #=> false
t.gmtime       #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:31 UTC
t.gmt?         #=> true

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:51 -0600
t.utc?         #=> false
t.utc          #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:51 UTC
t.utc?         #=> true
static VALUE
time_gmtime(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    struct vtm vtm;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        if (tobj->tm_got)
            return time;
    }
    else {
        time_modify(time);
    }

    vtm.zone = rb_fstring_lit("UTC");
    GMTIMEW(tobj->timew, &vtm);
    tobj->vtm = vtm;

    tobj->tm_got = 1;
    TZMODE_SET_UTC(tobj);
    return time;
}
gmtoff → integer click to toggle source

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600
VALUE
rb_time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
        MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
        return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}
hash → integer click to toggle source

Returns a hash code for this Time object.

See also Object#hash.

static VALUE
time_hash(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_hash(w2v(tobj->timew));
}
hour → integer click to toggle source

Returns the hour of the day (0..23) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:26:20 -0600
t.hour         #=> 8
static VALUE
time_hour(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.hour);
}
inspect → string click to toggle source

Returns a string representing time. Equivalent to calling strftime with the appropriate format string.

t = Time.now
t.to_s                              #=> "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"   #=> "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"

t.utc.to_s                          #=> "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC"  #=> "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
static VALUE
time_to_s(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj))
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
    else
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}
isdst → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time occurs during Daylight Saving Time in its time zone.

# CST6CDT:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "CST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "CDT"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> true
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> true

# Asia/Tokyo:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> false
static VALUE
time_isdst(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.isdst ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}
localtime → time click to toggle source
localtime(utc_offset) → time

Converts time to local time (using the local time zone in effect at the creation time of time) modifying the receiver.

If utc_offset is given, it is used instead of the local time.

t = Time.utc(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1) #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                                  #=> true

t.localtime                             #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
t.utc?                                  #=> false

t.localtime("+09:00")                   #=> 2000-01-02 05:15:01 +0900
t.utc?                                  #=> false

If utc_offset is not given and time is local time, just returns the receiver.

static VALUE
time_localtime_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE off;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) && !NIL_P(off = argv[0])) {
        return time_zonelocal(time, off);
    }

    return time_localtime(time);
}
mday → integer click to toggle source

Returns the day of the month (1..n) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:03 -0600
t.day          #=> 19
t.mday         #=> 19
static VALUE
time_mday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday);
}
min → integer click to toggle source

Returns the minute of the hour (0..59) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:25:51 -0600
t.min          #=> 25
static VALUE
time_min(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.min);
}
mon → integer click to toggle source
month → integer

Returns the month of the year (1..12) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:30 -0600
t.mon          #=> 11
t.month        #=> 11
static VALUE
time_mon(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon);
}
monday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Monday.

t = Time.local(2003, 8, 4)       #=> 2003-08-04 00:00:00 -0500
t.monday?                        #=> true
static VALUE
time_monday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(1);
}
month → integer click to toggle source

Returns the month of the year (1..12) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:30 -0600
t.mon          #=> 11
t.month        #=> 11
static VALUE
time_mon(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon);
}
nsec → int click to toggle source

Returns the number of nanoseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-17 15:18:03 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195280283.536151409"
t.nsec              #=> 536151406

The lowest digits of to_f and nsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the exact number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

The more accurate value is returned by nsec.

static VALUE
time_nsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(wmulquoll(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE)), 1000000000, TIME_SCALE)));
}
round([ndigits]) → new_time click to toggle source

Rounds sub seconds to a given precision in decimal digits (0 digits by default). It returns a new Time object. ndigits should be zero or a positive integer.

require 'time'

t = Time.utc(2010,3,30, 5,43,"25.123456789".to_r)
t.iso8601(10)           #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"
t.round.iso8601(10)     #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.0000000000Z"
t.round(0).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.0000000000Z"
t.round(1).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1000000000Z"
t.round(2).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1200000000Z"
t.round(3).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1230000000Z"
t.round(4).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1235000000Z"
t.round(5).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234600000Z"
t.round(6).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234570000Z"
t.round(7).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234568000Z"
t.round(8).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567900Z"
t.round(9).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"
t.round(10).iso8601(10) #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"

t = Time.utc(1999,12,31, 23,59,59)
(t + 0.4).round.iso8601(3)    #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z"
(t + 0.49).round.iso8601(3)   #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z"
(t + 0.5).round.iso8601(3)    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
(t + 1.4).round.iso8601(3)    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
(t + 1.49).round.iso8601(3)   #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
(t + 1.5).round.iso8601(3)    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:01.000Z"

t = Time.utc(1999,12,31, 23,59,59)
(t + 0.123456789).round(4).iso8601(6)  #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.123500Z"
static VALUE
time_round(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE ndigits, v, a, b, den;
    long nd;
    struct time_object *tobj;

    if (!rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) || NIL_P(ndigits = argv[0]))
        ndigits = INT2FIX(0);
    else
        ndigits = rb_to_int(ndigits);

    nd = NUM2LONG(ndigits);
    if (nd < 0)
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative ndigits given");

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    v = w2v(rb_time_unmagnify(tobj->timew));

    a = INT2FIX(1);
    b = INT2FIX(10);
    while (0 < nd) {
        if (nd & 1)
            a = mulv(a, b);
        b = mulv(b, b);
        nd = nd >> 1;
    }
    den = quov(INT2FIX(1), a);
    v = modv(v, den);
    if (lt(v, quov(den, INT2FIX(2))))
        return time_add(tobj, time, v, -1);
    else
        return time_add(tobj, time, subv(den, v), 1);
}
saturday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Saturday.

t = Time.local(2006, 6, 10)      #=> 2006-06-10 00:00:00 -0500
t.saturday?                      #=> true
static VALUE
time_saturday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(6);
}
sec → integer click to toggle source

Returns the second of the minute (0..60) for time.

Note: Seconds range from zero to 60 to allow the system to inject leap seconds. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leap_second for further details.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:25:02 -0600
t.sec          #=> 2
static VALUE
time_sec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.sec);
}
strftime( string ) → string click to toggle source

Formats time according to the directives in the given format string.

The directives begin with a percent (%) character. Any text not listed as a directive will be passed through to the output string.

The directive consists of a percent (%) character, zero or more flags, optional minimum field width, optional modifier and a conversion specifier as follows:

%<flags><width><modifier><conversion>

Flags:

-  don't pad a numerical output
_  use spaces for padding
0  use zeros for padding
^  upcase the result string
#  change case
:  use colons for %z

The minimum field width specifies the minimum width.

The modifiers are “E” and “O”. They are ignored.

Format directives:

Date (Year, Month, Day):
  %Y - Year with century if provided, will pad result at least 4 digits.
          -0001, 0000, 1995, 2009, 14292, etc.
  %C - year / 100 (rounded down such as 20 in 2009)
  %y - year % 100 (00..99)

  %m - Month of the year, zero-padded (01..12)
          %_m  blank-padded ( 1..12)
          %-m  no-padded (1..12)
  %B - The full month name (``January'')
          %^B  uppercased (``JANUARY'')
  %b - The abbreviated month name (``Jan'')
          %^b  uppercased (``JAN'')
  %h - Equivalent to %b

  %d - Day of the month, zero-padded (01..31)
          %-d  no-padded (1..31)
  %e - Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)

  %j - Day of the year (001..366)

Time (Hour, Minute, Second, Subsecond):
  %H - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock, zero-padded (00..23)
  %k - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)
  %I - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock, zero-padded (01..12)
  %l - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 1..12)
  %P - Meridian indicator, lowercase (``am'' or ``pm'')
  %p - Meridian indicator, uppercase (``AM'' or ``PM'')

  %M - Minute of the hour (00..59)

  %S - Second of the minute (00..60)

  %L - Millisecond of the second (000..999)
       The digits under millisecond are truncated to not produce 1000.
  %N - Fractional seconds digits, default is 9 digits (nanosecond)
          %3N  millisecond (3 digits)
          %6N  microsecond (6 digits)
          %9N  nanosecond (9 digits)
          %12N picosecond (12 digits)
          %15N femtosecond (15 digits)
          %18N attosecond (18 digits)
          %21N zeptosecond (21 digits)
          %24N yoctosecond (24 digits)
       The digits under the specified length are truncated to avoid
       carry up.

Time zone:
  %z - Time zone as hour and minute offset from UTC (e.g. +0900)
          %:z - hour and minute offset from UTC with a colon (e.g. +09:00)
          %::z - hour, minute and second offset from UTC (e.g. +09:00:00)
  %Z - Abbreviated time zone name or similar information.  (OS dependent)

Weekday:
  %A - The full weekday name (``Sunday'')
          %^A  uppercased (``SUNDAY'')
  %a - The abbreviated name (``Sun'')
          %^a  uppercased (``SUN'')
  %u - Day of the week (Monday is 1, 1..7)
  %w - Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

ISO 8601 week-based year and week number:
The first week of YYYY starts with a Monday and includes YYYY-01-04.
The days in the year before the first week are in the last week of
the previous year.
  %G - The week-based year
  %g - The last 2 digits of the week-based year (00..99)
  %V - Week number of the week-based year (01..53)

Week number:
The first week of YYYY that starts with a Sunday or Monday (according to %U
or %W). The days in the year before the first week are in week 0.
  %U - Week number of the year. The week starts with Sunday. (00..53)
  %W - Week number of the year. The week starts with Monday. (00..53)

Seconds since the Epoch:
  %s - Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

Literal string:
  %n - Newline character (\n)
  %t - Tab character (\t)
  %% - Literal ``%'' character

Combination:
  %c - date and time (%a %b %e %T %Y)
  %D - Date (%m/%d/%y)
  %F - The ISO 8601 date format (%Y-%m-%d)
  %v - VMS date (%e-%^b-%4Y)
  %x - Same as %D
  %X - Same as %T
  %r - 12-hour time (%I:%M:%S %p)
  %R - 24-hour time (%H:%M)
  %T - 24-hour time (%H:%M:%S)

This method is similar to strftime() function defined in ISO C and POSIX.

While all directives are locale independent since Ruby 1.9, %Z is platform dependent. So, the result may differ even if the same format string is used in other systems such as C.

%z is recommended over %Z. %Z doesn't identify the timezone. For example, “CST” is used at America/Chicago (-06:00), America/Havana (-05:00), Asia/Harbin (+08:00), Australia/Darwin (+09:30) and Australia/Adelaide (+10:30). Also, %Z is highly dependent on the operating system. For example, it may generate a non ASCII string on Japanese Windows, i.e. the result can be different to “JST”. So the numeric time zone offset, %z, is recommended.

Examples:

t = Time.new(2007,11,19,8,37,48,"-06:00") #=> 2007-11-19 08:37:48 -0600
t.strftime("Printed on %m/%d/%Y")         #=> "Printed on 11/19/2007"
t.strftime("at %I:%M %p")                 #=> "at 08:37 AM"

Various ISO 8601 formats:

%Y%m%d           => 20071119                  Calendar date (basic)
%F               => 2007-11-19                Calendar date (extended)
%Y-%m            => 2007-11                   Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific month
%Y               => 2007                      Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific year
%C               => 20                        Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific century
%Y%j             => 2007323                   Ordinal date (basic)
%Y-%j            => 2007-323                  Ordinal date (extended)
%GW%V%u          => 2007W471                  Week date (basic)
%G-W%V-%u        => 2007-W47-1                Week date (extended)
%GW%V            => 2007W47                   Week date, reduced accuracy, specific week (basic)
%G-W%V           => 2007-W47                  Week date, reduced accuracy, specific week (extended)
%H%M%S           => 083748                    Local time (basic)
%T               => 08:37:48                  Local time (extended)
%H%M             => 0837                      Local time, reduced accuracy, specific minute (basic)
%H:%M            => 08:37                     Local time, reduced accuracy, specific minute (extended)
%H               => 08                        Local time, reduced accuracy, specific hour
%H%M%S,%L        => 083748,000                Local time with decimal fraction, comma as decimal sign (basic)
%T,%L            => 08:37:48,000              Local time with decimal fraction, comma as decimal sign (extended)
%H%M%S.%L        => 083748.000                Local time with decimal fraction, full stop as decimal sign (basic)
%T.%L            => 08:37:48.000              Local time with decimal fraction, full stop as decimal sign (extended)
%H%M%S%z         => 083748-0600               Local time and the difference from UTC (basic)
%T%:z            => 08:37:48-06:00            Local time and the difference from UTC (extended)
%Y%m%dT%H%M%S%z  => 20071119T083748-0600      Date and time of day for calendar date (basic)
%FT%T%:z         => 2007-11-19T08:37:48-06:00 Date and time of day for calendar date (extended)
%Y%jT%H%M%S%z    => 2007323T083748-0600       Date and time of day for ordinal date (basic)
%Y-%jT%T%:z      => 2007-323T08:37:48-06:00   Date and time of day for ordinal date (extended)
%GW%V%uT%H%M%S%z => 2007W471T083748-0600      Date and time of day for week date (basic)
%G-W%V-%uT%T%:z  => 2007-W47-1T08:37:48-06:00 Date and time of day for week date (extended)
%Y%m%dT%H%M      => 20071119T0837             Calendar date and local time (basic)
%FT%R            => 2007-11-19T08:37          Calendar date and local time (extended)
%Y%jT%H%MZ       => 2007323T0837Z             Ordinal date and UTC of day (basic)
%Y-%jT%RZ        => 2007-323T08:37Z           Ordinal date and UTC of day (extended)
%GW%V%uT%H%M%z   => 2007W471T0837-0600        Week date and local time and difference from UTC (basic)
%G-W%V-%uT%R%:z  => 2007-W47-1T08:37-06:00    Week date and local time and difference from UTC (extended)
static VALUE
time_strftime(VALUE time, VALUE format)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    const char *fmt;
    long len;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE tmp;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    StringValue(format);
    if (!rb_enc_str_asciicompat_p(format)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "format should have ASCII compatible encoding");
    }
    tmp = rb_str_tmp_frozen_acquire(format);
    fmt = RSTRING_PTR(tmp);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(tmp);
    enc = rb_enc_get(format);
    if (len == 0) {
        rb_warning("strftime called with empty format string");
        return rb_enc_str_new(0, 0, enc);
    }
    else {
        VALUE str = rb_strftime_alloc(fmt, len, enc, time, &tobj->vtm, tobj->timew,
                                      TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj));
        rb_str_tmp_frozen_release(format, tmp);
        if (!str) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid format: %"PRIsVALUE, format);
        return str;
    }
}
subsec → number click to toggle source

Returns the fraction for time.

The return value can be a rational number.

t = Time.now        #=> 2009-03-26 22:33:12 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1238074392.940563917"
t.subsec            #=> (94056401/100000000)

The lowest digits of to_f and subsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the rational number.

The more accurate value is returned by subsec.

static VALUE
time_subsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return quov(w2v(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE))), INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE));
}
succ → new_time click to toggle source

Returns a new Time object, one second later than time. #succ is obsolete since 1.9.2 for time is not a discrete value.

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:57 -0600
t.succ             #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:58 -0600

Use instead time + 1

t + 1              #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:58 -0600
VALUE
rb_time_succ(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    struct time_object *tobj2;

    rb_warn("Time#succ is obsolete; use time + 1");
    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    time = time_new_timew(rb_cTime, wadd(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE)));
    GetTimeval(time, tobj2);
    TZMODE_COPY(tobj2, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_LOCALTIME_P(tobj2) && maybe_tzobj_p(tobj2->vtm.zone)) {
        zone_localtime(tobj2->vtm.zone, time);
    }
    return time;
}
sunday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Sunday.

t = Time.local(1990, 4, 1)       #=> 1990-04-01 00:00:00 -0600
t.sunday?                        #=> true
static VALUE
time_sunday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(0);
}
thursday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Thursday.

t = Time.local(1995, 12, 21)     #=> 1995-12-21 00:00:00 -0600
t.thursday?                      #=> true
static VALUE
time_thursday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(4);
}
to_a → array click to toggle source

Returns a ten-element array of values for time:

[sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, zone]

See the individual methods for an explanation of the valid ranges of each value. The ten elements can be passed directly to ::utc or ::local to create a new Time object.

t = Time.now     #=> 2007-11-19 08:36:01 -0600
now = t.to_a     #=> [1, 36, 8, 19, 11, 2007, 1, 323, false, "CST"]
static VALUE
time_to_a(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return rb_ary_new3(10,
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.sec),
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.min),
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.hour),
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday),
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon),
                    tobj->vtm.year,
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.wday),
                    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.yday),
                    tobj->vtm.isdst?Qtrue:Qfalse,
                    time_zone(time));
}
to_date → date click to toggle source

Returns a Date object which denotes self.

static VALUE
time_to_date(VALUE self)
{
    VALUE y, nth, ret;
    int ry, m, d;

    y = f_year(self);
    m = FIX2INT(f_mon(self));
    d = FIX2INT(f_mday(self));

    decode_year(y, -1, &nth, &ry);

    ret = d_simple_new_internal(cDate,
                                nth, 0,
                                GREGORIAN,
                                ry, m, d,
                                HAVE_CIVIL);
    {
        get_d1(ret);
        set_sg(dat, DEFAULT_SG);
    }
    return ret;
}
to_datetime → datetime click to toggle source

Returns a DateTime object which denotes self.

static VALUE
time_to_datetime(VALUE self)
{
    VALUE y, sf, nth, ret;
    int ry, m, d, h, min, s, of;

    y = f_year(self);
    m = FIX2INT(f_mon(self));
    d = FIX2INT(f_mday(self));

    h = FIX2INT(f_hour(self));
    min = FIX2INT(f_min(self));
    s = FIX2INT(f_sec(self));
    if (s == 60)
        s = 59;

    sf = sec_to_ns(f_subsec(self));
    of = FIX2INT(f_utc_offset(self));

    decode_year(y, -1, &nth, &ry);

    ret = d_complex_new_internal(cDateTime,
                                 nth, 0,
                                 0, sf,
                                 of, DEFAULT_SG,
                                 ry, m, d,
                                 h, min, s,
                                 HAVE_CIVIL | HAVE_TIME);
    {
        get_d1(ret);
        set_sg(dat, DEFAULT_SG);
    }
    return ret;
}
to_f → float click to toggle source

Returns the value of time as a floating point number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968744.77658"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968744

Note that IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the exact number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

static VALUE
time_to_f(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_Float(rb_time_unmagnify_to_float(tobj->timew));
}
to_i → int click to toggle source

Returns the value of time as an integer number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968656.89607"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968656
static VALUE
time_to_i(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return w2v(wdiv(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE)));
}
to_json(*args) click to toggle source

Stores class name (Time) with number of seconds since epoch and number of microseconds for Time as JSON string

# File ext/json/lib/json/add/time.rb, line 35
def to_json(*args)
  as_json.to_json(*args)
end
to_r → a_rational click to toggle source

Returns the value of time as a rational number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
t.to_r            #=> (1270968792716287611/1000000000)

This methods is intended to be used to get an accurate value representing the nanoseconds since the Epoch. You can use this method to convert time to another Epoch.

static VALUE
time_to_r(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    VALUE v;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    v = w2v(rb_time_unmagnify(tobj->timew));
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(v, T_RATIONAL)) {
        v = rb_Rational1(v);
    }
    return v;
}
to_s → string click to toggle source

Returns a string representing time. Equivalent to calling strftime with the appropriate format string.

t = Time.now
t.to_s                              #=> "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"   #=> "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"

t.utc.to_s                          #=> "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC"  #=> "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
static VALUE
time_to_s(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj))
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
    else
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}
to_time → time click to toggle source

Returns self.

static VALUE
time_to_time(VALUE self)
{
    return self;
}
tuesday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Tuesday.

t = Time.local(1991, 2, 19)      #=> 1991-02-19 00:00:00 -0600
t.tuesday?                       #=> true
static VALUE
time_tuesday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(2);
}
tv_nsec → int click to toggle source

Returns the number of nanoseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-17 15:18:03 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195280283.536151409"
t.nsec              #=> 536151406

The lowest digits of to_f and nsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the exact number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

The more accurate value is returned by nsec.

static VALUE
time_nsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(wmulquoll(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE)), 1000000000, TIME_SCALE)));
}
tv_sec → int click to toggle source

Returns the value of time as an integer number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968656.89607"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968656
static VALUE
time_to_i(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return w2v(wdiv(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE)));
}
tv_usec → int click to toggle source

Returns the number of microseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-19 08:03:26 -0600
"%10.6f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195481006.775195"
t.usec              #=> 775195
static VALUE
time_usec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    wideval_t w, q, r;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    w = wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE));
    wmuldivmod(w, WINT2FIXWV(1000000), WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE), &q, &r);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(q));
}
usec → int click to toggle source

Returns the number of microseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-19 08:03:26 -0600
"%10.6f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195481006.775195"
t.usec              #=> 775195
static VALUE
time_usec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    wideval_t w, q, r;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    w = wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE));
    wmuldivmod(w, WINT2FIXWV(1000000), WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE), &q, &r);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(q));
}
gmtime → time click to toggle source
utc → time

Converts time to UTC (GMT), modifying the receiver.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:31 -0600
t.gmt?         #=> false
t.gmtime       #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:31 UTC
t.gmt?         #=> true

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:51 -0600
t.utc?         #=> false
t.utc          #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:51 UTC
t.utc?         #=> true
static VALUE
time_gmtime(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    struct vtm vtm;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        if (tobj->tm_got)
            return time;
    }
    else {
        time_modify(time);
    }

    vtm.zone = rb_fstring_lit("UTC");
    GMTIMEW(tobj->timew, &vtm);
    tobj->vtm = vtm;

    tobj->tm_got = 1;
    TZMODE_SET_UTC(tobj);
    return time;
}
utc? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents a time in UTC (GMT).

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:15:23 -0600
t.utc?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                              #=> true

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:16:03 -0600
t.gmt?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)       #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt?                              #=> true
static VALUE
time_utc_p(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
utc_offset → integer click to toggle source

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600
VALUE
rb_time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
        MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
        return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}
w3cdtf() click to toggle source

This method converts a Time object to a String. The String contains the time in W3CDTF date/time format.

The W3CDTF format is defined here: www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime

Time.now.w3cdtf
# => "2013-08-26T14:12:10.817124-07:00"
# File lib/rss/rss.rb, line 53
def w3cdtf
  if usec.zero?
    fraction_digits = 0
  else
    fraction_digits = strftime('%6N').index(/0*\z/)
  end
  xmlschema(fraction_digits)
end
wday → integer click to toggle source

Returns an integer representing the day of the week, 0..6, with Sunday == 0.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-20 02:35:35 -0600
t.wday         #=> 2
t.sunday?      #=> false
t.monday?      #=> false
t.tuesday?     #=> true
t.wednesday?   #=> false
t.thursday?    #=> false
t.friday?      #=> false
t.saturday?    #=> false
static VALUE
time_wday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX((int)tobj->vtm.wday);
}
wednesday? → true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if time represents Wednesday.

t = Time.local(1993, 2, 24)      #=> 1993-02-24 00:00:00 -0600
t.wednesday?                     #=> true
static VALUE
time_wednesday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(3);
}
yday → integer click to toggle source

Returns an integer representing the day of the year, 1..366.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:32:31 -0600
t.yday         #=> 323
static VALUE
time_yday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.yday);
}
year → integer click to toggle source

Returns the year for time (including the century).

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:51 -0600
t.year         #=> 2007
static VALUE
time_year(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.year;
}
zone → string or timezone click to toggle source

Returns the name of the time zone used for time. As of Ruby 1.8, returns “UTC'' rather than “GMT'' for UTC times.

t = Time.gm(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1)
t.zone   #=> "UTC"
t = Time.local(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1)
t.zone   #=> "CST"
static VALUE
time_zone(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    VALUE zone;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);

    if (TZMODE_UTC_P(tobj)) {
        return rb_usascii_str_new_cstr("UTC");
    }
    zone = tobj->vtm.zone;
    if (NIL_P(zone))
        return Qnil;

    if (RB_TYPE_P(zone, T_STRING))
        zone = rb_str_dup(zone);
    return zone;
}