class Ripper

Ripper is a Ruby script parser.

You can get information from the parser with event-based style. Information such as abstract syntax trees or simple lexical analysis of the Ruby program.

Usage

Ripper provides an easy interface for parsing your program into a symbolic expression tree (or S-expression).

Understanding the output of the parser may come as a challenge, it's recommended you use PP to format the output for legibility.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp('def hello(world) "Hello, #{world}!"; end')
  #=> [:program,
       [[:def,
         [:@ident, "hello", [1, 4]],
         [:paren,
          [:params, [[:@ident, "world", [1, 10]]], nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil]],
         [:bodystmt,
          [[:string_literal,
            [:string_content,
             [:@tstring_content, "Hello, ", [1, 18]],
             [:string_embexpr, [[:var_ref, [:@ident, "world", [1, 27]]]]],
             [:@tstring_content, "!", [1, 33]]]]],
          nil,
          nil,
          nil]]]]

You can see in the example above, the expression starts with :program.

From here, a method definition at :def, followed by the method's identifier :@ident. After the method's identifier comes the parentheses :paren and the method parameters under :params.

Next is the method body, starting at :bodystmt (stmt meaning statement), which contains the full definition of the method.

In our case, we're simply returning a String, so next we have the :string_literal expression.

Within our :string_literal you'll notice two @tstring_content, this is the literal part for Hello, and !. Between the two @tstring_content statements is a :string_embexpr, where embexpr is an embedded expression. Our expression consists of a local variable, or var_ref, with the identifier (@ident) of world.

Resources

Requirements

License

Ruby License.

                                              Minero Aoki
                                      aamine@loveruby.net
                                    http://i.loveruby.net

Constants

EVENTS

This array contains name of all ripper events.

PARSER_EVENTS

This array contains name of parser events.

SCANNER_EVENTS

This array contains name of scanner events.

Public Class Methods

lex(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1) click to toggle source

Tokenizes the Ruby program and returns an array of an array, which is formatted like [[lineno, column], type, token].

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.lex("def m(a) nil end")
  #=> [[[1,  0], :on_kw,     "def"],
       [[1,  3], :on_sp,     " "  ],
       [[1,  4], :on_ident,  "m"  ],
       [[1,  5], :on_lparen, "("  ],
       [[1,  6], :on_ident,  "a"  ],
       [[1,  7], :on_rparen, ")"  ],
       [[1,  8], :on_sp,     " "  ],
       [[1,  9], :on_kw,     "nil"],
       [[1, 12], :on_sp,     " "  ],
       [[1, 13], :on_kw,     "end"]]
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/lexer.rb, line 42
def Ripper.lex(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1)
  Lexer.new(src, filename, lineno).lex
end
parse(src, filename = '(ripper)', lineno = 1) click to toggle source

Parses the given Ruby program read from src. src must be a String or an IO or a object with a gets method.

# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 17
def Ripper.parse(src, filename = '(ripper)', lineno = 1)
  new(src, filename, lineno).parse
end
sexp(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1) click to toggle source
EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and create S-exp tree. Returns more readable tree rather than ::sexp_raw. This method is mainly for developer use.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp("def m(a) nil end")
  #=> [:program,
       [[:def,
        [:@ident, "m", [1, 4]],
        [:paren, [:params, [[:@ident, "a", [1, 6]]], nil, nil, nil, nil]],
        [:bodystmt, [[:var_ref, [:@kw, "nil", [1, 9]]]], nil, nil, nil]]]]
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/sexp.rb, line 30
def Ripper.sexp(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1)
  builder = SexpBuilderPP.new(src, filename, lineno)
  sexp = builder.parse
  sexp unless builder.error?
end
sexp_raw(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1) click to toggle source
EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and create S-exp tree. This method is mainly for developer use.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp_raw("def m(a) nil end")
  #=> [:program,
       [:stmts_add,
        [:stmts_new],
        [:def,
         [:@ident, "m", [1, 4]],
         [:paren, [:params, [[:@ident, "a", [1, 6]]], nil, nil, nil]],
         [:bodystmt,
          [:stmts_add, [:stmts_new], [:var_ref, [:@kw, "nil", [1, 9]]]],
          nil,
          nil,
          nil]]]]
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/sexp.rb, line 56
def Ripper.sexp_raw(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1)
  builder = SexpBuilder.new(src, filename, lineno)
  sexp = builder.parse
  sexp unless builder.error?
end
slice(src, pattern, n = 0) click to toggle source
EXPERIMENTAL

Parses src and return a string which was matched to pattern. pattern should be described as Regexp.

require 'ripper'

p Ripper.slice('def m(a) nil end', 'ident')                   #=> "m"
p Ripper.slice('def m(a) nil end', '[ident lparen rparen]+')  #=> "m(a)"
p Ripper.slice("<<EOS\nstring\nEOS",
               'heredoc_beg nl $(tstring_content*) heredoc_end', 1)
    #=> "string\n"
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/lexer.rb, line 112
def Ripper.slice(src, pattern, n = 0)
  if m = token_match(src, pattern)
  then m.string(n)
  else nil
  end
end
tokenize(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1) click to toggle source

Tokenizes the Ruby program and returns an array of strings.

p Ripper.tokenize("def m(a) nil end")
   # => ["def", " ", "m", "(", "a", ")", " ", "nil", " ", "end"]
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/lexer.rb, line 20
def Ripper.tokenize(src, filename = '-', lineno = 1)
  Lexer.new(src, filename, lineno).tokenize
end

Private Instance Methods

_dispatch_0() click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 32
def _dispatch_0() nil end
_dispatch_1(a) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 33
def _dispatch_1(a) a end
_dispatch_2(a, b) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 34
def _dispatch_2(a, b) a end
_dispatch_3(a, b, c) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 35
def _dispatch_3(a, b, c) a end
_dispatch_4(a, b, c, d) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 36
def _dispatch_4(a, b, c, d) a end
_dispatch_5(a, b, c, d, e) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 37
def _dispatch_5(a, b, c, d, e) a end
_dispatch_6(a, b, c, d, e, f) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 38
def _dispatch_6(a, b, c, d, e, f) a end
_dispatch_7(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) click to toggle source
# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 39
def _dispatch_7(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) a end
compile_error(msg) click to toggle source

This method is called when the parser found syntax error.

# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 60
def compile_error(msg)
end
warn(fmt, *args) click to toggle source

This method is called when weak warning is produced by the parser. fmt and args is printf style.

# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 51
def warn(fmt, *args)
end
warning(fmt, *args) click to toggle source

This method is called when strong warning is produced by the parser. fmt and args is printf style.

# File ext/ripper/lib/ripper/core.rb, line 56
def warning(fmt, *args)
end