class IPAddr

IPAddr provides a set of methods to manipulate an IP address. Both IPv4 and IPv6 are supported.

Example

require 'ipaddr'

ipaddr1 = IPAddr.new "3ffe:505:2::1"

p ipaddr1                   #=> #<IPAddr: IPv6:3ffe:0505:0002:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff>

p ipaddr1.to_s              #=> "3ffe:505:2::1"

ipaddr2 = ipaddr1.mask(48)  #=> #<IPAddr: IPv6:3ffe:0505:0002:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000/ffff:ffff:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000>

p ipaddr2.to_s              #=> "3ffe:505:2::"

ipaddr3 = IPAddr.new "192.168.2.0/24"

p ipaddr3                   #=> #<IPAddr: IPv4:192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0>

Constants

IN4MASK

32 bit mask for IPv4

IN6FORMAT

Format string for IPv6

IN6MASK

128 bit mask for IPv6

RE_IPV4ADDRLIKE

Regexp internally used for parsing IPv4 address.

RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_COMPRESSED

Regexp internally used for parsing IPv6 address.

RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_FULL

Regexp internally used for parsing IPv6 address.

Attributes

family[R]

Returns the address family of this IP address.

Public Class Methods

new(addr = '::', family = Socket::AF_UNSPEC) click to toggle source

Creates a new ipaddr object either from a human readable IP address representation in string, or from a packed #in_addr value followed by an address family.

In the former case, the following are the valid formats that will be recognized: “address”, “address/prefixlen” and “address/mask”, where IPv6 address may be enclosed in square brackets (`[' and `]'). If a prefixlen or a mask is specified, it returns a masked IP address. Although the address family is determined automatically from a specified string, you can specify one explicitly by the optional second argument.

Otherwise an IP address is generated from a packed #in_addr value and an address family.

The IPAddr class defines many methods and operators, and some of those, such as &, |, include? and ==, accept a string, or a packed #in_addr value instead of an IPAddr object.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 557
def initialize(addr = '::', family = Socket::AF_UNSPEC)
  if !addr.kind_of?(String)
    case family
    when Socket::AF_INET, Socket::AF_INET6
      set(addr.to_i, family)
      @mask_addr = (family == Socket::AF_INET) ? IN4MASK : IN6MASK
      return
    when Socket::AF_UNSPEC
      raise AddressFamilyError, "address family must be specified"
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family: #{family}"
    end
  end
  prefix, prefixlen = addr.split('/')
  if prefix =~ /\A\[(.*)\]\z/i
    prefix = $1
    family = Socket::AF_INET6
  end
  # It seems AI_NUMERICHOST doesn't do the job.
  #Socket.getaddrinfo(left, nil, Socket::AF_INET6, Socket::SOCK_STREAM, nil,
  #                  Socket::AI_NUMERICHOST)
  @addr = @family = nil
  if family == Socket::AF_UNSPEC || family == Socket::AF_INET
    @addr = in_addr(prefix)
    if @addr
      @family = Socket::AF_INET
    end
  end
  if !@addr && (family == Socket::AF_UNSPEC || family == Socket::AF_INET6)
    @addr = in6_addr(prefix)
    @family = Socket::AF_INET6
  end
  if family != Socket::AF_UNSPEC && @family != family
    raise AddressFamilyError, "address family mismatch"
  end
  if prefixlen
    mask!(prefixlen)
  else
    @mask_addr = (@family == Socket::AF_INET) ? IN4MASK : IN6MASK
  end
rescue InvalidAddressError => e
  raise e.class, "#{e.message}: #{addr}"
end
new_ntoh(addr) click to toggle source

Creates a new ipaddr containing the given network byte ordered string form of an IP address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 106
def IPAddr::new_ntoh(addr)
  return IPAddr.new(IPAddr::ntop(addr))
end
ntop(addr) click to toggle source

Convert a network byte ordered string form of an IP address into human readable form.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 112
def IPAddr::ntop(addr)
  case addr.size
  when 4
    s = addr.unpack('C4').join('.')
  when 16
    s = IN6FORMAT % addr.unpack('n8')
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
  return s
end

Public Instance Methods

&(other) click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by bitwise AND.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 125
def &(other)
  return self.clone.set(@addr & coerce_other(other).to_i)
end
<<(num) click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by bitwise left shift.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 140
def <<(num)
  return self.clone.set(addr_mask(@addr << num))
end
<=>(other) click to toggle source

Compares the ipaddr with another.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 391
def <=>(other)
  other = coerce_other(other)
rescue
  nil
else
  @addr <=> other.to_i if other.family == @family
end
==(other) click to toggle source

Returns true if two ipaddrs are equal.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 150
def ==(other)
  other = coerce_other(other)
rescue
  false
else
  @family == other.family && @addr == other.to_i
end
===(other)
Alias for: include?
>>(num) click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by bitwise right-shift.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 135
def >>(num)
  return self.clone.set(@addr >> num)
end
_ipv4_compat?() click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 317
def _ipv4_compat?
  if !ipv6? || (@addr >> 32) != 0
    return false
  end
  a = (@addr & IN4MASK)
  return a != 0 && a != 1
end
_reverse() click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 675
def _reverse
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    return (0..3).map { |i|
      (@addr >> (8 * i)) & 0xff
    }.join('.')
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    return ("%.32x" % @addr).reverse!.gsub!(/.(?!$)/, '\&.')
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
_to_string(addr) click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 688
def _to_string(addr)
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    return (0..3).map { |i|
      (addr >> (24 - 8 * i)) & 0xff
    }.join('.')
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    return (("%.32x" % addr).gsub!(/.{4}(?!$)/, '\&:'))
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
addr_mask(addr) click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 664
def addr_mask(addr)
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    return addr & IN4MASK
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    return addr & IN6MASK
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
coerce_other(other) click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 601
def coerce_other(other)
  case other
  when IPAddr
    other
  when String
    self.class.new(other)
  else
    self.class.new(other, @family)
  end
end
eql?(other) click to toggle source

Checks equality used by Hash.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 401
def eql?(other)
  return self.class == other.class && self.hash == other.hash && self == other
end
hash() click to toggle source

Returns a hash value used by Hash, Set, and Array classes

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 406
def hash
  return ([@addr, @mask_addr].hash << 1) | (ipv4? ? 0 : 1)
end
hton() click to toggle source

Returns a network byte ordered string form of the IP address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 239
def hton
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    return [@addr].pack('N')
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    return (0..7).map { |i|
      (@addr >> (112 - 16 * i)) & 0xffff
    }.pack('n8')
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
in6_addr(left) click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 627
def in6_addr(left)
  case left
  when RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_FULL
    if $2
      addr = in_addr($~[2,4])
      left = $1 + ':'
    else
      addr = 0
    end
    right = ''
  when RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_COMPRESSED
    if $4
      left.count(':') <= 6 or raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
      addr = in_addr($~[4,4])
      left = $1
      right = $3 + '0:0'
    else
      left.count(':') <= ($1.empty? || $2.empty? ? 8 : 7) or
        raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
      left = $1
      right = $2
      addr = 0
    end
  else
    raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
  end
  l = left.split(':')
  r = right.split(':')
  rest = 8 - l.size - r.size
  if rest < 0
    return nil
  end
  (l + Array.new(rest, '0') + r).inject(0) { |i, s|
    i << 16 | s.hex
  } | addr
end
in_addr(addr) click to toggle source
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 612
def in_addr(addr)
  case addr
  when Array
    octets = addr
  else
    m = RE_IPV4ADDRLIKE.match(addr) or return nil
    octets = m.captures
  end
  octets.inject(0) { |i, s|
    (n = s.to_i) < 256 or raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
    s.match(/\A0./) and raise InvalidAddressError, "zero-filled number in IPv4 address is ambiguous"
    i << 8 | n
  }
end
include?(other) click to toggle source

Returns true if the given ipaddr is in the range.

e.g.:

require 'ipaddr'
net1 = IPAddr.new("192.168.2.0/24")
net2 = IPAddr.new("192.168.2.100")
net3 = IPAddr.new("192.168.3.0")
p net1.include?(net2)     #=> true
p net1.include?(net3)     #=> false
# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 173
def include?(other)
  other = coerce_other(other)
  if ipv4_mapped?
    if (@mask_addr >> 32) != 0xffffffffffffffffffffffff
      return false
    end
    mask_addr = (@mask_addr & IN4MASK)
    addr = (@addr & IN4MASK)
    family = Socket::AF_INET
  else
    mask_addr = @mask_addr
    addr = @addr
    family = @family
  end
  if other.ipv4_mapped?
    other_addr = (other.to_i & IN4MASK)
    other_family = Socket::AF_INET
  else
    other_addr = other.to_i
    other_family = other.family
  end

  if family != other_family
    return false
  end
  return ((addr & mask_addr) == (other_addr & mask_addr))
end
Also aliased as: ===
inspect() click to toggle source

Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of the ipaddr. (“#<IPAddr: family:address/mask>”)

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 457
def inspect
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    af = "IPv4"
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    af = "IPv6"
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
  return sprintf("#<%s: %s:%s/%s>", self.class.name,
                 af, _to_string(@addr), _to_string(@mask_addr))
end
ip6_arpa() click to toggle source

Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup compatible with RFC3172.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 370
def ip6_arpa
  if !ipv6?
    raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv6 address"
  end
  return _reverse + ".ip6.arpa"
end
ip6_int() click to toggle source

Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup compatible with RFC1886.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 378
def ip6_int
  if !ipv6?
    raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv6 address"
  end
  return _reverse + ".ip6.int"
end
ipv4?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 253
def ipv4?
  return @family == Socket::AF_INET
end
ipv4_compat() click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the native IPv4 address into an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 338
def ipv4_compat
  warn "IPAddr\##{__callee__} is obsolete", uplevel: 1 if $VERBOSE
  if !ipv4?
    raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv4 address"
  end
  return self.clone.set(@addr, Socket::AF_INET6)
end
ipv4_compat?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 312
def ipv4_compat?
  warn "IPAddr\##{__callee__} is obsolete", uplevel: 1 if $VERBOSE
  _ipv4_compat?
end
ipv4_mapped() click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the native IPv4 address into an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 329
def ipv4_mapped
  if !ipv4?
    raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv4 address"
  end
  return self.clone.set(@addr | 0xffff00000000, Socket::AF_INET6)
end
ipv4_mapped?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 307
def ipv4_mapped?
  return ipv6? && (@addr >> 32) == 0xffff
end
ipv6?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 258
def ipv6?
  return @family == Socket::AF_INET6
end
loopback?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is a loopback address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 263
def loopback?
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    @addr & 0xff000000 == 0x7f000000
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    @addr == 1
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
mask(prefixlen) click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by masking IP address with the given prefixlen/netmask. (e.g. 8, 64, “255.255.255.0”, etc.)

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 160
def mask(prefixlen)
  return self.clone.mask!(prefixlen)
end
mask!(mask) click to toggle source

Set current netmask to given mask.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 496
def mask!(mask)
  case mask
  when String
    if mask =~ /\A\d+\z/
      prefixlen = mask.to_i
    else
      m = IPAddr.new(mask)
      if m.family != @family
        raise InvalidPrefixError, "address family is not same"
      end
      @mask_addr = m.to_i
      n = @mask_addr ^ m.instance_variable_get(:@mask_addr)
      unless ((n + 1) & n).zero?
        raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid mask #{mask}"
      end
      @addr &= @mask_addr
      return self
    end
  else
    prefixlen = mask
  end
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    if prefixlen < 0 || prefixlen > 32
      raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid length"
    end
    masklen = 32 - prefixlen
    @mask_addr = ((IN4MASK >> masklen) << masklen)
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    if prefixlen < 0 || prefixlen > 128
      raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid length"
    end
    masklen = 128 - prefixlen
    @mask_addr = ((IN6MASK >> masklen) << masklen)
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
  @addr = ((@addr >> masklen) << masklen)
  return self
end
native() click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the IPv6 address into a native IPv4 address. If the IP address is not an IPv4-mapped or IPv4-compatible IPv6 address, returns self.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 349
def native
  if !ipv4_mapped? && !_ipv4_compat?
    return self
  end
  return self.clone.set(@addr & IN4MASK, Socket::AF_INET)
end
prefix() click to toggle source

Returns the prefix length in bits for the ipaddr.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 427
def prefix
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    n = IN4MASK ^ @mask_addr
    i = 32
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    n = IN6MASK ^ @mask_addr
    i = 128
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
  while n.positive?
    n >>= 1
    i -= 1
  end
  i
end
prefix=(prefix) click to toggle source

Sets the prefix length in bits

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 446
def prefix=(prefix)
  case prefix
  when Integer
    mask!(prefix)
  else
    raise InvalidPrefixError, "prefix must be an integer"
  end
end
private?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the ipaddr is a private address. IPv4 addresses in 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16 as defined in RFC 1918 and IPv6 Unique Local Addresses in fc00::/7 as defined in RFC 4193 are considered private.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 278
def private?
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    @addr & 0xff000000 == 0x0a000000 ||    # 10.0.0.0/8
      @addr & 0xfff00000 == 0xac100000 ||  # 172.16.0.0/12
      @addr & 0xffff0000 == 0xc0a80000     # 192.168.0.0/16
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    @addr & 0xfe00_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000 == 0xfc00_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
reverse() click to toggle source

Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup. It returns a string in RFC3172 form for an IPv6 address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 358
def reverse
  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    return _reverse + ".in-addr.arpa"
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    return ip6_arpa
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
end
set(addr, *family) click to toggle source

Set +@addr+, the internal stored ip address, to given addr. The parameter addr is validated using the first family member, which is Socket::AF_INET or Socket::AF_INET6.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 475
def set(addr, *family)
  case family[0] ? family[0] : @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    if addr < 0 || addr > IN4MASK
      raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
    end
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    if addr < 0 || addr > IN6MASK
      raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
    end
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end
  @addr = addr
  if family[0]
    @family = family[0]
  end
  return self
end
succ() click to toggle source

Returns the successor to the ipaddr.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 386
def succ
  return self.clone.set(@addr + 1, @family)
end
to_i() click to toggle source

Returns the integer representation of the ipaddr.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 203
def to_i
  return @addr
end
to_range() click to toggle source

Creates a Range object for the network address.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 411
def to_range
  begin_addr = (@addr & @mask_addr)

  case @family
  when Socket::AF_INET
    end_addr = (@addr | (IN4MASK ^ @mask_addr))
  when Socket::AF_INET6
    end_addr = (@addr | (IN6MASK ^ @mask_addr))
  else
    raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
  end

  return clone.set(begin_addr, @family)..clone.set(end_addr, @family)
end
to_s() click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the IP address representation.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 208
  def to_s
    str = to_string
    return str if ipv4?

    str.gsub!(/\b0{1,3}([\da-f]+)\b/i, '\1')
    loop do
      break if str.sub!(/\A0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0\z/, '::')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0:0:0:0:0:0\b/, ':')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0:0:0:0:0\b/, ':')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0:0:0:0\b/, ':')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0:0:0\b/, ':')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0:0\b/, ':')
      break if str.sub!(/\b0:0\b/, ':')
      break
    end
    str.sub!(/:{3,}/, '::')

    if /\A::(ffff:)?([\da-f]{1,4}):([\da-f]{1,4})\z/i =~ str
      str = sprintf('::%s%d.%d.%d.%d', $1, $2.hex / 256, $2.hex % 256, $3.hex / 256, $3.hex % 256)
    end

    str
  end

  # Returns a string containing the IP address representation in
  # canonical form.
  def to_string
    return _to_string(@addr)
  end

  # Returns a network byte ordered string form of the IP address.
  def hton
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      return [@addr].pack('N')
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      return (0..7).map { |i|
        (@addr >> (112 - 16 * i)) & 0xffff
      }.pack('n8')
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4 address.
  def ipv4?
    return @family == Socket::AF_INET
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv6 address.
  def ipv6?
    return @family == Socket::AF_INET6
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is a loopback address.
  def loopback?
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      @addr & 0xff000000 == 0x7f000000
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      @addr == 1
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is a private address.  IPv4 addresses
  # in 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16 as defined in RFC
  # 1918 and IPv6 Unique Local Addresses in fc00::/7 as defined in RFC
  # 4193 are considered private.
  def private?
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      @addr & 0xff000000 == 0x0a000000 ||    # 10.0.0.0/8
        @addr & 0xfff00000 == 0xac100000 ||  # 172.16.0.0/12
        @addr & 0xffff0000 == 0xc0a80000     # 192.168.0.0/16
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      @addr & 0xfe00_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000 == 0xfc00_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is a link-local address.  IPv4
  # addresses in 169.254.0.0/16 reserved by RFC 3927 and Link-Local
  # IPv6 Unicast Addresses in fe80::/10 reserved by RFC 4291 are
  # considered link-local.
  def link_local?
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      @addr & 0xffff0000 == 0xa9fe0000 # 169.254.0.0/16
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      @addr & 0xffc0_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000 == 0xfe80_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.
  def ipv4_mapped?
    return ipv6? && (@addr >> 32) == 0xffff
  end

  # Returns true if the ipaddr is an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address.
  def ipv4_compat?
    warn "IPAddr\##{__callee__} is obsolete", uplevel: 1 if $VERBOSE
    _ipv4_compat?
  end

  def _ipv4_compat?
    if !ipv6? || (@addr >> 32) != 0
      return false
    end
    a = (@addr & IN4MASK)
    return a != 0 && a != 1
  end

  private :_ipv4_compat?

  # Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the native IPv4 address
  # into an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.
  def ipv4_mapped
    if !ipv4?
      raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv4 address"
    end
    return self.clone.set(@addr | 0xffff00000000, Socket::AF_INET6)
  end

  # Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the native IPv4 address
  # into an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address.
  def ipv4_compat
    warn "IPAddr\##{__callee__} is obsolete", uplevel: 1 if $VERBOSE
    if !ipv4?
      raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv4 address"
    end
    return self.clone.set(@addr, Socket::AF_INET6)
  end

  # Returns a new ipaddr built by converting the IPv6 address into a
  # native IPv4 address.  If the IP address is not an IPv4-mapped or
  # IPv4-compatible IPv6 address, returns self.
  def native
    if !ipv4_mapped? && !_ipv4_compat?
      return self
    end
    return self.clone.set(@addr & IN4MASK, Socket::AF_INET)
  end

  # Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup.  It returns a string in
  # RFC3172 form for an IPv6 address.
  def reverse
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      return _reverse + ".in-addr.arpa"
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      return ip6_arpa
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  # Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup compatible with RFC3172.
  def ip6_arpa
    if !ipv6?
      raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv6 address"
    end
    return _reverse + ".ip6.arpa"
  end

  # Returns a string for DNS reverse lookup compatible with RFC1886.
  def ip6_int
    if !ipv6?
      raise InvalidAddressError, "not an IPv6 address"
    end
    return _reverse + ".ip6.int"
  end

  # Returns the successor to the ipaddr.
  def succ
    return self.clone.set(@addr + 1, @family)
  end

  # Compares the ipaddr with another.
  def <=>(other)
    other = coerce_other(other)
  rescue
    nil
  else
    @addr <=> other.to_i if other.family == @family
  end
  include Comparable

  # Checks equality used by Hash.
  def eql?(other)
    return self.class == other.class && self.hash == other.hash && self == other
  end

  # Returns a hash value used by Hash, Set, and Array classes
  def hash
    return ([@addr, @mask_addr].hash << 1) | (ipv4? ? 0 : 1)
  end

  # Creates a Range object for the network address.
  def to_range
    begin_addr = (@addr & @mask_addr)

    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      end_addr = (@addr | (IN4MASK ^ @mask_addr))
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      end_addr = (@addr | (IN6MASK ^ @mask_addr))
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end

    return clone.set(begin_addr, @family)..clone.set(end_addr, @family)
  end

  # Returns the prefix length in bits for the ipaddr.
  def prefix
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      n = IN4MASK ^ @mask_addr
      i = 32
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      n = IN6MASK ^ @mask_addr
      i = 128
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
    while n.positive?
      n >>= 1
      i -= 1
    end
    i
  end

  # Sets the prefix length in bits
  def prefix=(prefix)
    case prefix
    when Integer
      mask!(prefix)
    else
      raise InvalidPrefixError, "prefix must be an integer"
    end
  end

  # Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of the
  # ipaddr. ("#<IPAddr: family:address/mask>")
  def inspect
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      af = "IPv4"
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      af = "IPv6"
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
    return sprintf("#<%s: %s:%s/%s>", self.class.name,
                   af, _to_string(@addr), _to_string(@mask_addr))
  end

  protected

  # Set +@addr+, the internal stored ip address, to given +addr+. The
  # parameter +addr+ is validated using the first +family+ member,
  # which is +Socket::AF_INET+ or +Socket::AF_INET6+.
  def set(addr, *family)
    case family[0] ? family[0] : @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      if addr < 0 || addr > IN4MASK
        raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
      end
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      if addr < 0 || addr > IN6MASK
        raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
      end
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
    @addr = addr
    if family[0]
      @family = family[0]
    end
    return self
  end

  # Set current netmask to given mask.
  def mask!(mask)
    case mask
    when String
      if mask =~ /\A\d+\z/
        prefixlen = mask.to_i
      else
        m = IPAddr.new(mask)
        if m.family != @family
          raise InvalidPrefixError, "address family is not same"
        end
        @mask_addr = m.to_i
        n = @mask_addr ^ m.instance_variable_get(:@mask_addr)
        unless ((n + 1) & n).zero?
          raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid mask #{mask}"
        end
        @addr &= @mask_addr
        return self
      end
    else
      prefixlen = mask
    end
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      if prefixlen < 0 || prefixlen > 32
        raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid length"
      end
      masklen = 32 - prefixlen
      @mask_addr = ((IN4MASK >> masklen) << masklen)
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      if prefixlen < 0 || prefixlen > 128
        raise InvalidPrefixError, "invalid length"
      end
      masklen = 128 - prefixlen
      @mask_addr = ((IN6MASK >> masklen) << masklen)
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
    @addr = ((@addr >> masklen) << masklen)
    return self
  end

  private

  # Creates a new ipaddr object either from a human readable IP
  # address representation in string, or from a packed in_addr value
  # followed by an address family.
  #
  # In the former case, the following are the valid formats that will
  # be recognized: "address", "address/prefixlen" and "address/mask",
  # where IPv6 address may be enclosed in square brackets (`[' and
  # `]').  If a prefixlen or a mask is specified, it returns a masked
  # IP address.  Although the address family is determined
  # automatically from a specified string, you can specify one
  # explicitly by the optional second argument.
  #
  # Otherwise an IP address is generated from a packed in_addr value
  # and an address family.
  #
  # The IPAddr class defines many methods and operators, and some of
  # those, such as &, |, include? and ==, accept a string, or a packed
  # in_addr value instead of an IPAddr object.
  def initialize(addr = '::', family = Socket::AF_UNSPEC)
    if !addr.kind_of?(String)
      case family
      when Socket::AF_INET, Socket::AF_INET6
        set(addr.to_i, family)
        @mask_addr = (family == Socket::AF_INET) ? IN4MASK : IN6MASK
        return
      when Socket::AF_UNSPEC
        raise AddressFamilyError, "address family must be specified"
      else
        raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family: #{family}"
      end
    end
    prefix, prefixlen = addr.split('/')
    if prefix =~ /\A\[(.*)\]\z/i
      prefix = $1
      family = Socket::AF_INET6
    end
    # It seems AI_NUMERICHOST doesn't do the job.
    #Socket.getaddrinfo(left, nil, Socket::AF_INET6, Socket::SOCK_STREAM, nil,
    #                  Socket::AI_NUMERICHOST)
    @addr = @family = nil
    if family == Socket::AF_UNSPEC || family == Socket::AF_INET
      @addr = in_addr(prefix)
      if @addr
        @family = Socket::AF_INET
      end
    end
    if !@addr && (family == Socket::AF_UNSPEC || family == Socket::AF_INET6)
      @addr = in6_addr(prefix)
      @family = Socket::AF_INET6
    end
    if family != Socket::AF_UNSPEC && @family != family
      raise AddressFamilyError, "address family mismatch"
    end
    if prefixlen
      mask!(prefixlen)
    else
      @mask_addr = (@family == Socket::AF_INET) ? IN4MASK : IN6MASK
    end
  rescue InvalidAddressError => e
    raise e.class, "#{e.message}: #{addr}"
  end

  def coerce_other(other)
    case other
    when IPAddr
      other
    when String
      self.class.new(other)
    else
      self.class.new(other, @family)
    end
  end

  def in_addr(addr)
    case addr
    when Array
      octets = addr
    else
      m = RE_IPV4ADDRLIKE.match(addr) or return nil
      octets = m.captures
    end
    octets.inject(0) { |i, s|
      (n = s.to_i) < 256 or raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
      s.match(/\A0./) and raise InvalidAddressError, "zero-filled number in IPv4 address is ambiguous"
      i << 8 | n
    }
  end

  def in6_addr(left)
    case left
    when RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_FULL
      if $2
        addr = in_addr($~[2,4])
        left = $1 + ':'
      else
        addr = 0
      end
      right = ''
    when RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_COMPRESSED
      if $4
        left.count(':') <= 6 or raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
        addr = in_addr($~[4,4])
        left = $1
        right = $3 + '0:0'
      else
        left.count(':') <= ($1.empty? || $2.empty? ? 8 : 7) or
          raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
        left = $1
        right = $2
        addr = 0
      end
    else
      raise InvalidAddressError, "invalid address"
    end
    l = left.split(':')
    r = right.split(':')
    rest = 8 - l.size - r.size
    if rest < 0
      return nil
    end
    (l + Array.new(rest, '0') + r).inject(0) { |i, s|
      i << 16 | s.hex
    } | addr
  end

  def addr_mask(addr)
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      return addr & IN4MASK
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      return addr & IN6MASK
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  def _reverse
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      return (0..3).map { |i|
        (@addr >> (8 * i)) & 0xff
      }.join('.')
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      return ("%.32x" % @addr).reverse!.gsub!(/.(?!$)/, '\&.')
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

  def _to_string(addr)
    case @family
    when Socket::AF_INET
      return (0..3).map { |i|
        (addr >> (24 - 8 * i)) & 0xff
      }.join('.')
    when Socket::AF_INET6
      return (("%.32x" % addr).gsub!(/.{4}(?!$)/, '\&:'))
    else
      raise AddressFamilyError, "unsupported address family"
    end
  end

end

unless Socket.const_defined? :AF_INET6
  class Socket < BasicSocket
    # IPv6 protocol family
    AF_INET6 = Object.new
  end

  class << IPSocket
    private

    def valid_v6?(addr)
      case addr
      when IPAddr::RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_FULL
        if $2
          $~[2,4].all? {|i| i.to_i < 256 }
        else
          true
        end
      when IPAddr::RE_IPV6ADDRLIKE_COMPRESSED
        if $4
          addr.count(':') <= 6 && $~[4,4].all? {|i| i.to_i < 256}
        else
          addr.count(':') <= 7
        end
      else
        false
      end
    end

    alias getaddress_orig getaddress

    public

    # Returns a +String+ based representation of a valid DNS hostname,
    # IPv4 or IPv6 address.
    #
    #   IPSocket.getaddress 'localhost'         #=> "::1"
    #   IPSocket.getaddress 'broadcasthost'     #=> "255.255.255.255"
    #   IPSocket.getaddress 'www.ruby-lang.org' #=> "221.186.184.68"
    #   IPSocket.getaddress 'www.ccc.de'        #=> "2a00:1328:e102:ccc0::122"
    def getaddress(s)
      if valid_v6?(s)
        s
      else
        getaddress_orig(s)
      end
    end
  end
to_string() click to toggle source

Returns a string containing the IP address representation in canonical form.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 234
def to_string
  return _to_string(@addr)
end
|(other) click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by bitwise OR.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 130
def |(other)
  return self.clone.set(@addr | coerce_other(other).to_i)
end
~() click to toggle source

Returns a new ipaddr built by bitwise negation.

# File lib/ipaddr.rb, line 145
def ~
  return self.clone.set(addr_mask(~@addr))
end